Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 29.djvu/396

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lived with her first husband for nearly six years, and bore him a son and three daughters. In 1290 she took the cross with her husband, but neither of them went on the crusade (B. Cotton, p. 177, Rolls Ser.) On 7 Dec. 1295 Earl Gilbert died, and his estates reverted to Joanna, who did homage for them on 20 Jan. 1296. Very shortly afterwards Joanna fell in love with one of her squires, Ralph de Monthermer [q. v.], and she induced her father to knight him, and then married him privately early in 1297 (Hemingburgh, ii. 70). Edward learned of her intentions without discovering that they were already accomplished, and on 29 Jan. 1297 took all the countess's lands into his own hands. In March Edward endeavoured to arrange a marriage between her and Amadeus of Savoy (Fœdera, i. 861). Thereupon Joanna revealed the marriage. Edward was very wroth, and Monthermer was imprisoned, but the king eventually relented, and in July Joanna's lands were restored. Monthermer did homage on 2 Aug. (Parl. Writs, i. 297), and, assuming the title of Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, afterwards rose to high favour with the king. Joanna died at Stoke Clare, Suffolk, on 23 April 1307, and was buried in the Augustine priory there (Flores Hist. iii. 142). She left by her second husband two sons and a daughter.

[Fœdera, Record ed.; Hemingburgh (Engl. Hist. Soc.); authorities quoted; Green's Princesses of England, ii. 318–62, where many minor details of interest will be found.]

C. L. K.

JOAN (1321–1362), queen of Scotland, fourth and youngest child of Edward II [q. v.], by his wife Isabella, daughter of Philip IV of France, was called Joan of the Tower, in which fortress she was born at the end of June or beginning of July 1321 (cf. Annales Paulini, p. 291). The ‘Flores Historiarum’ (iii. 192, Rolls Ser.) alone gives the date of her birth as 1319, and places it at York, possibly confusing her with her elder sister Eleanor. The two neglected princesses passed some years under the care of Ralph de Monthermer and his second wife at Pleshy and Marlborough (Green, Princesses of England, iii. 67).

In 1325 Edward II made vain proposals to marry Joan, first to the eldest son (afterwards Peter IV, 1336–1387) of Alfonso, eldest son and heir of James II, king of Aragon from 1291 to 1327 (Fœdera, ii. 590, Rec. ed.; but cf. entry on Pat. Rolls), and subsequently to John, son of Philip, count of Valois (afterwards Philip VI) (Green, p. 99). Joan and her sister were removed in the same year to Bristol, under the care of the elder Hugh le Despenser, and were present when he was surrendered to Isabella and hanged (Froissart, i. 17).

At Easter 1327 (12 April) Queen Isabella had all her children with her at Peterborough. One of the first steps of Isabella and Mortimer, in Edward III's name, was to send, late in the summer of 1327, to Robert Bruce [see Bruce, Robert de VIII], then besieging Norham, a proposal for a match between his son and heir, David Bruce [q. v.], not yet four years old, and Joan (Scalachronica, p. 155, Maitland Club ed. 1836). Conditions of peace between the two countries, including this marriage, were arranged during the winter, and the ‘turpis pax’ (Avesbury, p. 7, ed. Hearne) which surrendered the English claims over Scotland was concluded at Edinburgh on 17 March (Fœdera, ii. 734). The treaty provided that Joan should be handed over to the Scots on 15 July following, and secured her a jointure of two thousand ‘librates’ of land in Scotland, ‘in some convenient place.’ If David should die before the marriage was solemnised, Joan was nevertheless to enjoy her dower. Should David die, Joan was to marry, subject to papal dispensation, the next male heir to the Scottish crown. If she died, David was to marry some other lady nearly allied to the English king (ib.; Robertson, Index to Scotch Records, p. 101). Isabella made no stipulation for her custody, and in July the queen and Mortimer, with a great train, brought her to Berwick (Fœdera, iii. 740). Despite the tender age of both parties, the marriage was celebrated at Berwick with great splendour on Sunday, 17 July 1327 (Fordun, i. 352; Chron. de Lanercost, p. 261; Knighton, i. 447; Chronique de London, ed. Aungier, Camden Soc., p. 61; Walsingham, i. 192, says the 12th, Annales Paulini the 16th, Chronicle of London, ed. Nicolas, and others, the 22nd. Cf. Excheq. Rolls of Scotl. i. cxiii–cxvii, ed. Stuart and Burnett). Edward pointedly absented himself, and in England, where the peace was most unpopular, Isabella was held to have ‘disparaged’ her daughter by a ‘vile matrimonium’ (Brute Chron. in Harl. MS. 2279; Chron. Angl. 1328–88, p. 2). The Scots, too, ‘in despyte of Englyssh men,’ called their future queen ‘Joan Make-peace’ (Chron. of Lond. ed. Nicolas, p. 53). Her mother, after loading her with farewell gifts, handed her over, very probably on 22 July (Green), to the Scottish commissioners, who conveyed her to Edinburgh, where King Robert gave her a ‘fair welcoming’ (Barbour, Bruce, iii. 159, ed. Pinkerton, 1790). Her brother's commissioners had already been put in possession of her dower-lands (Rot. Scot. i. 390; Green). The infant couple, who resided chiefly at