pars prima, qua continetur Historia Librorum Sacrorum Veteris et Novi Testamenti,' vol. i. (all published), Pavia, 1793, 8vo, dedicated to Count Joseph de Wilzeck, knight of the Golden Fleece, containing much valuable matter. 4. 'An Essay on the Practical History of Sheep in Spain, and of the Spanish Sheep in Saxony, Anhalt Dessau, &c. By George Stumpf, M.A., and member of the Academy of Mentz, Leipsick, 1785. Translated from the German,' Dublin, 1800, 8vo. In vol. i. pt. i. of the 'Transactions of the Dublin Society.' 5. 'Introduction concerning the Nature, Present State, and true interests of the Church of England, and on the means of effecting a reconciliation of the Churches; with remarks on the False Representations, repeated in some late Tracts, of several Catholic Tenets, particularly the Supremacy of the See of Rome, by Irenæus,' prefixed to a book of 66 pages entitled 'The Protestant Apology for the Roman Catholic Church. By Christianus, i.e. William Talbot of Castle Talbot, co. Wexford,' Dublin, 1809, 8vo. 6. An edition of Alban Butler's 'Meditations and Discourses,' Dublin, 1840, 8vo, is said to have been revised and improved by Lanigan.
[Irish Wits and Worthies, including Dr. Lanigan, his Life and Times, by W. J. Fitzpatrick, LL.D., Dublin, 1873; Allibone's Dict. of English Lit. ii. 1058; Brenan's Eccl. Hist. of Ireland, 1864, p. 649; Dublin Rev. December 1847, p. 489; Horne's Introd. to the Holy Scriptures; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 1309; Cat. of Library of Trin. Coll. Dublin, v. 39.]
LANKESTER, EDWIN (1814–1874), man of science, was born 23 April 1814, at Melton, near Woodbridge, Suffolk. His father, William Lankester, was a builder, and died of phthisis at the age of twenty-seven, leaving a widow, his son Edwin, four years old, and a daughter still younger. An injudicious use of the small property left by William Lankester made the family poor. Edwin's school education came to an end when he was barely twelve years old. He was about to be apprenticed to a watchmaker when Samuel Gissing, surgeon, of Woodbridge, took him as an articled pupil. In 1832 his articles expired, and he became assistant to a surgeon named Stanisland of Fareham, Hampshire. He was not well treated, and after a few months left to become assistant at the 'Repertorium,' in Seymour Street, Euston Square, London, where he suffered literally from semi-starvation. In 1833 he became assistant to Mr. Spurgeon of Saffron Walden in Essex, who, though severe and ascetic, took a pleasure in furthering the intellectual development of his assistants. He admitted Lankester to his excellent library, and helped him in the study of Latin and Greek and the English classics. Lankester was made secretary of a vigorous natural history society in the town and curator of the museum. The friends, won by his honesty and ability, lent him 300l. to support him through a medical course at the recently opened London University, where from 1834 to 1837 he studied medicine and the natural sciences. He studied zoology under Grant and botany under Lindley, in whose class he gained the silver medal. His fellow-students elected him president of the college medical society. In 1837, being unable to afford the expense of the full course necessary for the university of London degree, he qualified as M.R.C.S. and L.S.A. Through the friendship of his teacher, Lindley, he obtained a valuable appointment as resident medical attendant and science tutor in the family of Mr. Wood of Campsell Hall, near Doncaster. With his pupils, youths of exceptional talent, he increased his scientific knowledge, and he formed a lifelong friendship with his colleague, Dr. Leonard Schmitz. In 1839 he went to Heidelberg to learn German and to graduate as M.D., a feat which he accomplished after a residence of six months. He now settled in London, and supported himself by literary work, popular lectures, and such practice as fell in his way. Between 1840 and 1846 he made many friends, including Charles Dickens, Douglas Jerrold, and Arthur Henfrey [q.v.]. He lodged with Edward Forbes [q.v.] in Golden Square; wrote regularly for the 'Daily News' (chiefly on medical reform, in support of Mr. Wakley), and began a connection with the 'Athenæum' which lasted till his death. He was a regular attendant at the British Association, and for five-and-twenty years (1839–64) was secretary of section D. He was an original member of the famous 'Red Lions,' founded by Edward Forbes [q.v.] in 1839. In 1844 he became secretary of the Ray Society. In 1845 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society.
Lankester's career after his marriage in 1845 was divided between the pursuit of science and the extension of a knowledge of scientific results. He had in 1841 taken the extra-license of the College of Physicians, with a view to practice in Leeds. But his failure in 1847 to obtain the London license of that body led to his gradually abandoning the practice of medicine for more distinctly scientific work. In 1847 he wrote the article 'Rotifera' for the 'Cyclopædia of Anatomy and Physiology;' in 1849 he produced a translation of Schleiden's 'Principles of Scientific Botany,' and in 1850 was appointed professor of natural history in New College, Lon-