Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 32.djvu/280

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ed. 1751). In 1652 he was one of the commissioners appointed to treat with the Irish at Kilkenny (ib. p. 352), and in 1655 he acted as go-between in the disputes of Ludlow with Fleetwood and Henry Cromwell (ib. ii. 88). Lawrence was in favour of transplanting the Irish to Connaught, and answered in his 'Interest of England in the Irish Transplantation Stated' (London, 9 March 1654-5) the pamphlet published by Vincent Gookin [q. v.] against it. His defence of the transplantation rests on two main grounds: first, that the Irish made an unprovoked attack on the English as such — 'not only English people but English cattle and houses were destroyed as being of an English kind;' secondly, that the English were overcome only because they were scattered. He says great tenderness was shown where there had been any mitigating circumstances, 'that a cup of cold water might not go unrequited.' In October 1654 Lawrence was appointed one of the committee for the survey of forfeited lands, and quarrelled with Petty, who had contracted to do the work. Petty maintained his own views, while Lawrence declared that he and his brother officers were badly treated. In 1656 he was one of the 'agents for the regiments whose lots fell in Minister.' and actively engaged in defending their interests. In 1659 he was one of those who forced Richard Cromwell to deprive Petty, with whom he was still at war, of public employment. Lawrence himself received grants of land, but apparently not large ones, in Dublin, Kildare, Cork, and elsewhere (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1658). After the Restoration it was proposed to deprive him of all, as one of thirty fanatics who had spoken favourably of regicide and opposed the king's return; but this was not actually done (Carte, Ormonde, bk. vi.; Ludlow, Memoirs, ii. 801). Having now no military employment, Lawrence occupied himself for about twenty years in schemes for the improvement of Ireland as a member of the council of trade, where he had his old antagonist Petty as a colleague (Petty, Political Anatomy of Ireland). Strong protestant as Lawrence was, he had many friends among the adherents of Rome, and seems to have had no difficulties with the government. Even in bishops he could spy desert, and he seems to have been really attached to Ormonde. Lawrence was a believer in sumptuary laws, and his ideas on trade were not in advance of the time, but his book 'The Interest of Ireland in its Trade and Wealth stated . . .' Dublin, 1682, 12mo, throws much light on the state of Ireland under Charles H. The council of trade printed some directions which he drew up for planting hemp and flax.

Wood confuses the above with another Richard Lawrence (fl. 1657), son of George Lawrence of Stepleton in Dorset. The latter, born 1618, became a commoner of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1636, but left without graduating. He was author of 'Gospel Separation Separated from its Abuses.' Lond., 1657, 8vo.

[Petty's Down Survey, ed. Richard Bagwell Larcom; and the authorities quoted above; Wood's Athene Oxon. ed. Bliss, ui. 452; Marefield Clonmel.]

R. B-l.

LAWRENCE, SAMUEL (1661–1712), nonconformist divine, was only son of William Lawrence, dyer, of Wem, Shropshire, and nephew of Edward Lawrence (1623–1695) [q. v.], who was ejected in 1662 from Baschurch, Shropshire. He was baptised at Wem on 5 Nov. 1661, and educated at Wem free school and Newport school, and later at Charles Morton's dissenting academy at Newington Green. After serving two or three years as usher at Mr. Singleton's school in Bartholomew Close, he became domestic chaplain to Lady Irby, widow of Sir Anthony Irby of Dean's Yard, Westminster. At the same time he acted as assistant to Vincent Alsop, at Princess Street Chapel, Westminster. In 1688 he was chosen minister of the presbyterian congregation at Nantwich, Cheshire, and was ordained at Warrington in November that year. He continued at Nantwich twenty-four years, and was often elected as moderator by the Cheshire ministers, whose meetings he regularly attended. He was a good scholar, and in his latter years undertook the preparation of young men for the ministry. He died of fever on 24 April 1712, aged 50, and was buried in the chancel of Nantwich Church. His funeral sermon was preached by his intimate friend Matthew Henry, who depicts him as a model of piety and pastoral usefulness. Lawrence was twice married, and left three sons by his first wife and two daughters by the second. His first wife died in April 1700, and his second in November 1712. One of his sons was Samuel Lawrence, D.D. (1693–1760), minister of Monkswell Street Chapel, London.

[M. Henry's Funeral Sermon, 1712; Palatine Note-book, ii. 96; Urwick's Nonconf. in Cheshire, p. 125; Williams's Memoir of M. Henry, 1828; Tong's Life of M. Henry; Hall's Nantwich, 1883, p. 385; Wilson's Diss. Churches, iii. 28, iv. 67.]

C. W. S.

LAWRENCE, Sir SOULDEN (1751–1814), judge, son of Thomas Lawrence, M.D. [q. v.], president of the College of Physicians,