Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 37.djvu/388

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in 1643 (Egerton MSS. 2643, 2647), letter to the parliamentary committee at Southampton in 1645 (Addit. MS. 24860, f. 114), and a guarantee on a loan for pay of troops in Essex in 1643 (Egerton MS. 2651, f. 146); there are also letters of his in the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian Library (Lords' Journals, vols. vi. x).

[Morant's Essex, i. 30, ii. 29; Noble's Lives of the English Regicides; the Traytor's Pilgrimage from the Tower to Tyburn; Bramston's Autobiog. (Camd. Soc.), p. 28; Coxe's Cat. Cod. MSS. Bibl. Bodl. pt. iv. p. 1025.]

G. G.

MILDMAY, Sir WALTER (1520?–1589), chancellor of the exchequer, and founder of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, was fourth and youngest son of Thomas Mildmay of Chelmsford, by his wife, Agnes Read. The latter was buried at Chelmsford, 5 Oct. 1557 (Machyn, Diary, p. 154). As commissioner for receiving the surrender of the monasteries, the father had made a large fortune. In 1540 he was granted the manor of Moulsham, near Chelmsford, and built there a fine mansion (cf. Nichols's Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, ii. 287). He received a general pardon from Queen Mary, 1 Oct. 1553 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 307). His eldest son, Sir Thomas (d. 1566), auditor of the court of augmentation, which was established in 1537 for controlling the property taken by the crown from the monasteries, was grandfather of Thomas (d. 1626), who was created a baronet in 1611, and of Henry (d. 1645), who was knighted. The latter claimed, in right of his mother Frances Ratcliffe, daughter of Henry, third baron Fitz-walter, and second earl of Sussex, the barony of Fitz-walter, and his grandson Benjamin (d. 1679), on 10 Feb. 1670, was summoned to the House of Lords by that title. Benjamin's two sons, Charles (d. 1728) and Benjamin, were in succession Lords Fitz-walter, the latter being further created Viscount Harwich and Earl Fitz-walter in 1730. On his death, in 1756, the earldom became extinct and the barony fell into abeyance (cf. Burke's Extinct Peerages, p. 368).

Walter was educated at Christ's College, Cambridge, but apparently took no degree. He subsequently became a student of law at Gray's Inn (1546), and obtained some employment under his father in the court of augmentation. When that court was reconstituted, about 1545, he was made one of its two surveyors-general. During Edward VI's reign Mildmay extended his official connection. On 22 Feb. 1546–7 he was knighted, and on 14 Sept. following prepared, with three others, an inventory of the late king's wardrobe. Sixteen days later he was appointed a commissioner to report upon the crown revenues. In 1548 he acted on commissions for the sale of lands (March) and for the maintenance of such grammar schools as had belonged to the dissolved chantries. After the Duke of Somerset's arrest he was ordered by the privy council, 12 Nov. 1549, to examine the royal palace at Westminster, which had been in the duke's custody, and on 8 March 1550–1 to take charge of the duke's property at Sion House. He received for his services many grants of land in Gloucestershire and Berkshire, some of which he exchanged for manors in Oxfordshire and Northamptonshire; other grants in Cornwall, Essex, and London soon followed. He fixed his country residence at Apethorpe, Northamptonshire, which was granted to him in 1552, and was confirmed to him in 1556. In London he lived in the parish of Great St. Bartholomew's (cf. Strype, Grindal, p. 92).

Mildmay soon proved himself a skilful financier. In 1550 he was directed, together with the Earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert, to examine the accounts of the king's mints, and in 1551 superintended the establishment of a new mint at York. In December 1551 he was a commissioner to inspect the courts which controlled the crown lands. On 2 Jan. 1552 he was commissioned to levy the king's debts; on 21 Nov. to settle with the crown accountants the effect of a fall in the value of money; in December to audit the funds belonging to the king's officers; and in that and the next year he superintended the receipt by the crown of plate, jewels, bells, and the like surrendered by dissolved monasteries or chantries. He was elected M.P. for Maldon on 1 March 1552–3, and for Peterborough on 5 Oct. 1553. Although he was a convinced Calvinist, Queen Mary's accession did not appreciably depress his fortunes, and before her death he was employed on government business. On 9 Jan. 1557–8 he was appointed treasurer of the forces sent to the relief of Calais. He was chosen to represent Northamptonshire in the parliament meeting in January 1557, and represented that constituency till his death.

Under Queen Elizabeth, with whom he regularly exchanged New-Year's gifts, his influence steadily grew. On her accession he was at once made treasurer of her household, and was appointed a member of a small committee of ways and means to supply the empty exchequer. He was soon busily employed in preparing a census of the farms of the royal revenues (22 Dec. 1558), in examining Queen Mary's grants of land, in compounding with those who refused knight-