Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 43.djvu/302

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delivered the Croonian lectures before the College of Physicians in March 1871, selecting for his subject ‘Some Points connected with the Elimination of Nitrogen from the Human Body.’ For some years he delivered a short course of lectures on hygiene to the corps of royal engineers at Chatham. In 1871 he made, with Dr. Burdon-Sanderson, a report on the sanitary state of Liverpool.

Parkes died on 15 March 1876, at his residence, Sydney Cottage, Bittern, near Southampton, from general tuberculosis, and on the Tuesday following he was buried by the side of his wife at Solihull, near Birmingham. In 1850 he married Mary Jane Chattock of Solihull. She died, after severe suffering, in 1873, without issue.

On 26 June 1876 Sir William Jenner, bart., delivered before the Royal College of Physicians the Harveian oration which Dr. Parkes was engaged in writing at the time of his death. The last work from his pen was a manual ‘On Personal Care of Health,’ which was published posthumously by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. A revised edition of his work on ‘Public Health,’ which was a concise sketch of the sanitary considerations connected with the land, with cities, villages, houses, and individuals, was edited by Sir William Aitken, kt., in 1876.

Parkes's wisdom, moderation, and rare sweetness of character won the love and respect of all who knew him. Sir William Jenner said of him that ‘the desire to possess his esteem has been that which has encouraged me from my earliest student days. … He taught me, as a student, to desire knowledge for itself, to desire to be good in itself and for itself, and not for anything which might follow it. … The excellence of his life was so evident, his work was such earnest work, performed so unostentatiously and manifestly from such high motives, and the charm of his manner was so great, that few of his fellow-students could escape being better men from associating with him.’ Several memorials were established in Parkes's memory. At University College, London, a museum of hygiene was founded, of which the original trustees were Sir William Jenner, bart., Dr. (now Sir Edward) Sieveking, and Dr. Poore. It was opened in 1877, and was formally incorporated under license of the board of trade; it was removed in 1882 from University College to new premises in Margaret Street, Cavendish Square.

At Netley, a portrait of Dr. Parkes, by Messrs. Barraud & Jerrard, was placed in the anteroom of the army medical staff mess; a triennial prize of seventy-five guineas, and a large gold medal bearing Parkes's portrait, was established for the best essay on a subject connected with hygiene, the prize to be open to the medical officers of the army, navy, and Indian service of executive rank, on full pay; and a bronze medal, also bearing the portrait of Parkes, was instituted, to be awarded at the close of each session to the best student in hygiene.

Besides the works already mentioned, Parkes contributed largely to various periodicals: To the ‘Medical Times and Gazette,’ ‘Lectures on Clinical Medicine, delivered at University College Hospital,’ commencing vol. xx. p. 469, 1849, continued in vol. xxi. for 1850, also on 22 April 1852, 8 July 1854, and 28 Feb. 1857; ‘On the Decomposition of Chloride of Sodium by Acetic Acid in the Presence of Albumen,’ vol. xxii. p. 84, 1850; ‘On the Formation of Crystals in Human Blood,’ vol. xxvi. 1852; ‘On the Precipitation of Albumen by Acids and Neutral Salts,’ 1852; ‘On Recurrent Watery Diarrhœa with Choleraic Attacks,’ 1852; ‘On Pigment Deposit in the Skin, without Disease of Suprarenal Capsules,’ vol. xxxviii. 1858; ‘On the Value of Albuminuria as a Symptom of Kidney Disease,’ 1859; ‘On Acute Sthenic Pneumonia left without Treatment,’ 1860; ‘Composition of the Urine in Health and Disease, and under the Action of Remedies,’ 1860; ‘The Detachment of the Epithelium in Cholera,’ 1866. To the ‘Madras Quarterly Medical Journal,’ vols. v. and vi.: ‘Remarks on Cholera, with Post-mortem Examinations of a few Cases.’ To the ‘British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review:’ ‘On the Elimination of Lead by Iodide of Potassium,’ April 1853; ‘On the Action of Liquor Potassæ on the Urine in Health,’ January 1853, January 1854, and October 1854. To the ‘Lancet:’ ‘Critical Days in Pneumonia—Value of Bleeding,’ and ‘Treatment of Pneumonia by Wine and Ammonia,’ 1855. To the ‘Departmental Reports:’ ‘Report on “Carniset,” a concentrated Food,’ 1861; ‘Reports on Liebig's “Extractum Carnis,”’ 1863. He also published his inaugural lecture at the Army Medical School, entitled ‘On the Care of Old Age,’ 1862.

[Lancet, 1876–82; Medical Times and Gazette, 1876–82; British Medical Journal; published works of Dr. Parkes; Records of the Army Medical School, Netley; information from Dr. Parkes's colleagues; Transactions of the Royal Society; ‘In Memoriam,’ an address by Sir William Aitken, M.D., F.R.S.]

W. W. W.

PARKES, Sir HARRY SMITH (1828–1885), diplomatist, was born on 24 Feb. 1828 at Birchill's Hall, Bloxwich, near Wal-