brother, George Richard Pain (1793?–1838), who was born in London about 1793, to John Nash [q. v.], architect, and subsequently the two brothers entered into business together as architects and builders. George exhibited at the Royal Academy designs in the Gothic style in 1810–14, while living at 1 Diana Place, Fitzroy Square. About 1817, when Nash designed Loughcooter Castle, co. Galway, for Charles Vereker, viscount Gort, he recommended the brothers as builders. They consequently went to Ireland. James settled at Limerick and George at Cork. While practising as architects they often carried their own designs into execution. James was appointed architect to the board of first-fruits for the province of Munster, where a large number of churches and glebe-houses were built, altered, or repaired by him and his brother. Their churches of Buttevant, Midleton, and Carrigaline, with a tower and spire, are among the best specimens of the Gothic architecture of the period. The mansion, Mitchelstown Castle, near Cork, for the Earl of Kingston, is the largest and perhaps the best of their designs; it is in the late thirteenth-century style. An engraving appears in Neale's ‘Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen,’ 4to, 1825, 2nd ser. vol. ii.
Others of their works were the gaols at Limerick and Cork; Bael's, Ball's, or Bawl's bridge, consisting of one arch, over the abbey stream at Limerick (1831); Thomond bridge, over the river Shannon at Limerick, between 1839 and 1843; and Athlunkard bridge, about a mile distant, consisting of five large elliptic arches.
George died in 1838, aged 45, and was buried in the churchyard of St. Mary, Shandon, co. Waterford. James retired, and died in Limerick on 13 Dec. 1877, in his ninety-eighth year, and was buried at the cathedral of that city.
[Neale (as above); local information; Dictionary of Architecture of the Architectural Publication Society, which adds the names of many other buildings.]
PAIN, WILLIAM (1730?–1790?), writer on architecture and joinery, published a series of practical treatises. The earliest was ‘The Builder's Companion and Workman's General Assistant,’ 92 plates, fol. 1759, chiefly dealing with work in the Chippendale style. This was followed by ‘The Builder's Pocket Treasure; or, Palladio delineated and explained,’ 44 plates, 8vo, 1763; and compilations of the same description appeared in 1774, 1780, and 1782. ‘The British Palladio; or, Builder's General Assistant,’ &c., 42 plates, fol. 1785, was reissued in 1793, 1797, and 1804. The date 1770, usually assigned to Pain's death, is obviously too early. A William Paine died in the Isle of Thanet on 27 July 1771 (Gent. Mag. 1771, p. 378), but the architectural writer must have died after 1790. ‘W. Pain,’ of 1 Diana Place, Fitzroy Square, who exhibited at the Royal Academy designs in the Gothic style in 1802 and 1807, was possibly a son.
Another son, James, a builder and surveyor, assisted his father in his latest publication, and left at least four sons, three of whom (Henry, James [q. v.], and George Richard) were pupils of the architect John Nash.
[Dictionary of Architecture; Catalogue of Royal Academy.]
PAINE or PAYNE, JAMES (1725–1789), architect, born in 1725, is said to have become a student in the St. Martin's Lane Academy, where he attained the power of drawing the figure and ornament with success (Dict. of Arch.) He states that he began as a youth the study of architecture under Thomas Jersey (d. 1751), and at the age of nineteen was entrusted with the construction of Nostell Priory in the West Riding of Yorkshire for Sir Rowland Winne, bart., ‘after a design seen by his client during his travels on the continent’ (Neale, Seats, vol. iv.; Woolfe and Gandon, Vitruvius Britannicus, fol., London, 1767, vol. i. pl. 57–63, or pl. 70–3). About 1740 he erected two wings at Cusworth House, Yorkshire, for William Wrightson (Neale, Seats, vol. v.; Woolfe, i. pl. 89–92), and he refers to ‘several gentlemen's buildings in Yorkshire’ as executed prior to 1744, when he was employed to design and build (as was then the practice with architects) the mansion-house at Doncaster. This was completed in 1748; and he published a description, with twenty-one plates (fol., London, 1751).
Paine was, until 1772, a director of the Society of Artists of Great Britain, and numerous designs by him appear in the society's ‘Catalogues’ from 1761 onwards. But the fullest account of his work appears in his ‘Plans, &c., of Noblemen and Gentlemen's Residences executed in various Counties, and also of stabling, bridges, public and private temples, and other garden buildings.’ The first volume or part was issued in 1767, the second part in 1783, together with a second edition of the first, and the book contained altogether 175 fine plates. Among the plans are the stabling and some bridges at Chatsworth for the Duke of Devonshire (1758–