Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 45.djvu/172

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page has been validated.
Philippa
Philippa
164

1652; (d) Boys's ‘Æneas his Descent into Hell,’ 1661; (e) Southouse's ‘Monasticon Favershamiense,’ 1671.

[Addit. MSS. 5878 f. 48, 24490 f. 230 b; Brydges's Censura Lit. 1805, i. 268; Critical Review, 1778, p. 253; Dallaway's Science of Heraldry, p. 346; Foster's Alumni Oxon., early series, iii. 1160; Gent. Mag. 1778, p. 590; Gough's British Topography, i. 442; Hasted's Kent, 1886, i. 197, 199, 283; Hearne's Remarks and Collections (Doble), ii. 154; Moule's Bibl. Heraldica, pp. 182, 183; Noble's College of Arms, p. 246.]

T. C.

PHILIPPA of Hainault (1314?–1369), queen of Edward III, daughter of William, called the Good, Count of Holland and Hainault (d. 1337), and his countess Jeanne (d. 1342), daughter of Charles of Valois (d. 1325), son of Philip III of France, was born in or about 1314. When Isabella (1292–1358) [q. v.], queen of Edward II, was in Hainault with her son Edward in 1326, she arranged a marriage between him and Philippa. While at the count's court at Valenciennes Edward was more with Philippa than with her sisters, and when he took leave of her she burst into tears before the court, and innocently declared before the assembled company that she was weeping because she had to part with him (Froissart, i. 235, ed. Luce). The next year, when Edward had become king, he sent ambassadors to Count William requesting him to send him his daughter. The count agreed, provided that the pope allowed the marriage; for a dispensation was necessary, as the young king and Philippa were cousins, both being great-grandchildren of Philip III of France. At Edward's request the dispensation was granted by John XXII (Fœdera, ii. 712, 714), and Philippa was provided by her father with all such apparel as became her future dignity (Jehan le Bel, i. 76). In October the king sent d|Roger de|Northburgh}} [q. v.], bishop of Lichfield, to Valenciennes to marry Philippa to him by proxy and declare her dower (Fœdera, ii. 718–19), and on 20 Nov. Bartholomew, lord Burghersh (d. 1355) [q. v.], and William de Clinton were commissioned to escort her to England (ib. p. 724). She embarked at Wissant with a gallant suite, and landed at Dover on 23 Dec. There she was met by her uncle, Sir John of Hainault, the king being engaged in the north in negotiations with Scotland. After stopping at Canterbury to offer at the shrine of St. Thomas the archbishop, she proceeded to London, where she was received with rejoicing, and was presented with gifts of the value of three hundred marks. Leaving London on the 27th, she spent 1 Jan. 1328 at the abbey of Peterborough, and went on to York, where she was married to the king on the 30th (Annales Paulini, ap. Chronicles Edward II, i. 339). Her Flemish attendants then for the most part returned home, though a young esquire, Walter Manny [q. v.], remained with her to wait upon her (Jehan le Bel, u.s.). On 15 May the king pledged himself to assign her the dower in lands and rents promised on his behalf by the bishop of Lichfield (Fœdera, ii. 743).

At the time of her marriage Philippa was in her fourteenth year (Froissart, i. 285). Her marriage was of political importance. Queen Isabella had already used Philippa's marriage portion in hiring troops that helped her to depose her husband and set her son on the throne; Isabella landed in England with a large body of Hainaulters under Philippa's uncle, Sir John of Hainault. In the war with Scotland in 1327 Sir John and his Hainaulters took a prominent part. It was, however, when Edward was entering on his long war with France that his marriage was specially important to him, for it gave him a claim on the alliance of his queen's father and brother, her brothers-in-law the Emperor Lewis of Bavaria and William, marquis of Juliers, and other princes and lords, and her abiding affection for her own people helped forward his plans. With Philippa's marriage with Edward must probably be connected his efforts to persuade Flemish weavers to settle in England and pursue and teach their trade there (Cunningham, English Industry and Commerce, i. 9, 282). Many of these alien workmen appear to have settled in Norwich, and it is probable that the queen took a personal interest in their welfare, for she visited the city several times, in 1340, 1342, and 1344 (Blomefield, Norfolk, i. 83–8).

On Edward's return from France in June 1329 he hastened to rejoin his wife at Windsor [see under Edward III]. She was crowned at Westminster on 4 March 1330, and on 15 June, at Woodstock, bore her first child, Edward [q. v.], called the Black Prince. Her nurse was Katherine, daughter of Sir Adam Banaster of Shevington, Lancashire, and wife of Sir John Haryngton of Farleton in that county (Beltz, Order of the Garter, p. 244). In September 1331 she had a narrow escape at a tournament in Cheapside, for the stand from which she and her ladies were watching the proceedings broke down, and they were all thrown to the ground. Neither she nor her attendants were injured, though many others were badly hurt. The carpenters would have suffered for their negligence had she not interceded