Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 45.djvu/175

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bishop of Winchester (for the scandalous tale about her pretended confession to the bishop, see under John of Gaunt and Chronicon Angliæ, pp. 107, 398). She died on 15 Aug., and was buried with great pomp on the south side of the chapel of the kings, where her tomb, built by her husband, stands, with her recumbent effigy, evidently a likeness, surrounded by the effigies of thirty persons of princely rank who were connected with her by birth (Stanley, Memorials of Westminster, p. 122).

A bust by an unknown sculptor, taken from this effigy, is in the National Portrait Gallery, London. There are also heads, believed to be hers, in some of the Bristol churches, specially in the crypt of St. Nicholas; for, like other queens, she had the town and castle of Bristol as part of her dower (Taylor, Bristol, Past and Present, i. 75, ii. 159). A painting of her is said to have been found in the cloisters of St. Stephen's, Westminster, and there is a wooden effigy of her in the library of Queen's College, Oxford.

In person Philippa was tall and handsome. She was prudent, kindly, humble, and devout; very liberal and pitiful, graceful in manner, adorned, Froissart says, ‘with every noble virtue, and beloved of God and all men.’ While she was strongly attached to the people of her fatherland, she greatly loved the English, and was extremely popular with them. Her death was a terrible misfortune to her husband. She bore him seven sons and five daughters. Two mottoes that she used were ‘Myn Biddenye’ and ‘Iche wrude muche,’ and they were worked on two richly embroidered corsets that were given to her by the king (Nicholas, Orders of Knighthood, ii. 485). She greatly enlarged the hospital of St. Katherine, near the Tower, and was a benefactress to the canons of St. Stephen's, Westminster, and to Queen's College, Oxford, founded and called after her by her chaplain, Robert of Eglesfield [q. v.] Queenborough, in the Isle of Sheppey, Kent, where part of her dower lay, was founded and called after her by Edward III, who, in honour of her, made the place a free borough in 1366 (Hasted, History of Kent, ii. 620, 656).

[Jehan le Bel, ed. Polain; Froissart's Chroniques, ed. Luce (Société de l'Histoire de France); Geoffrey le Baker, ed. Thompson; Knighton, ed. Twisden; Murimuth and Robert of Avesbury; Walsingham; Chron. Angliæ; Polit. Poems; Eulogium Hist. (these six in Rolls Ser.); Rymer's Fœdera (Record edit.); Collectanea, vol. i. (Oxford Hist. Soc.); Beltz's Hist. of the Garter; Nicolas's Orders of Knighthood; L'Art de vérifier les Dates (Hainault, Holland), vols. xiii. xiv.; Blomefield's Hist. of Norfolk; Hasted's Hist. of Kent; Taylor's Bristol, Past and Present; Stanley's Memorials of Westminster, 5th edit.; Darmesteter's Froissart (Grands Écrivains Français); Strickland's Queens of England, i. 543–590; Longman's Life of Edward III.]

W. H.

PHILIPPA of Lancaster (1359–1415) queen of John I of Portugal, born in 1359, was daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and was first brought to Portugal by her father on his expedition in aid of Portuguese independence in 1386. While aiding his ally against Castille, the Duke of Lancaster settled the terms of a marriage alliance by which John I of Portugal, the founder of the house of Aviz, who had led the national rising against the threatened Castilian succession since 1383, was to marry his daughter Philippa. After King John had been released by Urban VI from the vows of celibacy which he had taken in earlier life as master of the order of Aviz, the marriage took place on 2 Feb. 1387. Philippa was twenty-eight years old on her marriage, and became the mother of five celebrated sons, the ‘royal race of famous Infantes,’ viz. King Edward I, Don Pedro the traveller and the great regent, Prince Henry the navigator, Ferdinand the saint, and John. Her two eldest children, Dona Branca and Don Alfonso, died in infancy. During her last illness in 1415 she was moved from Lisbon to Sacavem, while her husband and sons were on the point of starting for the conquest of Ceuta in Barbary. On her deathbed she spoke to her eldest son of a king's true vocation, to Pedro of his knightly duties in the protection of widows and orphans, to Henry of a general's care for his men. A story tells how she roused herself before she died to ask what wind it was that blew so strongly against the house, and being told it was the north, exclaimed to those about her ‘It is the wind for your voyage, which must be about St. James's day’ (25 July).

She died on 13 July, and was buried in Batalha Abbey church, where her recumbent statue rests by the side of King John's. She enjoyed the reputation of a perfect wife and mother. Her husband survived her till 1433, and was succeeded by their eldest son, Edward. Philip II of Spain descended from her through his mother Isabella, daughter of King Emanuel of Portugal, Philippa's great-grandson [see under Mary I of England].

[Chevalier's Répertoire; Notice by Ferd. Denis in Nouvelle Biographie Générale; José Soares de Silva's Memorias para a Historia del Rey dom João I; Barbosa's Catalogo das Rainhas; Schæffer's Historia de Portugal; Souza's His-