a second series in one volume appeared in 1847. They contain numerous observations by Richard Clark (1739–1831) [q. v.], the city chamberlain, on incidents in the political and social life of London. Poynder's own reflections are indicated by the word ‘Miscellaneous.’
Poynder's other works, most of which relate to his doctrinal convictions, include: 1. ‘Christianity in India,’ 1813; a series of letters sent to the ‘Times’ under name of Laicus, with those of his opponent, ‘An East India Proprietor.’ 2. ‘Brief Account of the Jesuits’ (anon.) 1815; also included in the ‘Pamphleteer,’ vi. 99–145. 3. ‘History of the Jesuits, with a Reply to Mr. Dallas's Defence of that Order’ (anon.), 1816, 2 vols. 4. ‘Popery the Religion of Heathenism, being Letters of Ignotus in the “Times”’ (anon.), 1818; 2nd edit., with new title and author's name, 1835 (Halkett and Laing, Pseud. Literature, ii. 1973); on the publication of the second edition, called ‘Popery in alliance with Heathenism,’ Cardinal Wiseman addressed to him some printed letters of remonstrance. 5. ‘The Church her own Enemy,’ 1818. 6. ‘Human Sacrifices in India,’ substance of speech at the courts of the East India Company, 21 and 28 March,’ 1827. 7. ‘Speech at Court of East India Company, 22 Sept. 1830, on its Encouragement of Idolatry,’ 1830. 8. ‘Friendly Suggestions to those in Authority,’ 1831. 9. ‘Life of Francis Spira,’ translated, 1832. 10. ‘State of Ireland reconsidered, in answer to Lord Alvanley,’ 1841. 11. ‘Word to the English Laity on Puseyism,’ 1843 (followed by ‘A second Word’ in 1848). 12. ‘Idolatry in India: six Letters on the Continuance of the Payment to the Temple of Juggernaut,’ 1848. He frequently contributed to the ‘Christian Observer’ and the ‘Church and State Gazette.’
[Gent. Mag. 1807 pt. ii. p. 887, 1845 pt. ii. p. 544, 1849 pt. i. p. 547; Christian Observer, July 1847 (a fragment of autobiography) and 1849, pp. 354–7; Literary Extracts, ii. 733 and 2nd ser. pp. 17–31; Church and State Gazette, 1849, p. 181; Rev. W. Jay's Autobiogr., pp. 446–448.]
POYNET, JOHN (1514?–1556), bishop of Winchester. [See Ponet.]
POYNINGS, Sir EDWARD (1459–1521), lord deputy of Ireland, only son of Robert Poynings [see under Poynings, Michael de], and his wife, Elizabeth, only daughter of William Paston (1378–1444) [q. v.], was born towards the end of 1459, probably at his father's house in Southwark, which afterwards became famous as the Crosskeys tavern, and then as the Queen's Head (cf. Rendle and Norman, Inns of Old Southwark, p. 204). His father had been carver and sword-bearer to Jack Cade, and was killed at the second battle of St. Albans on 17 Feb. 1461 (Archæol. Cant. vii. 243–4); his mother, who was born on 1 July 1429, and married Poynings in December 1459, inherited her husband's property in Kent, in spite of opposition from her brother-in-law, Edward Poynings, master of Arundel College; before 1472 she married a second husband, Sir George Browne of Betchworth, Surrey, by whom she had a son Matthew and a daughter. She died in 1487, appointing Edward her executor. Some of her correspondence is included in the ‘Paston Letters.’
Poynings was brought up by his mother; in October 1483 he was a leader of the rising in Kent planned to second Buckingham's insurrection against Richard III. He was named in the king's proclamation, but escaped abroad, and adopted the cause of Henry, earl of Richmond. He was in Brittany in October 1484 (Polydore Vergil, p. 208; Busch, i. 17), and in August 1485 he landed with Henry at Milford Haven. He was at once made a knight banneret, and in the same year he was sworn of the privy council. In 1488 he was on a commission to inspect the ordnance at Calais, and in 1491 was made a knight of the Garter. In the following year he was placed in command of fifteen hundred men sent to aid Maximilian against his revolted subjects in the Netherlands. The rebels, under the leadership of Ravenstein, held Bruges, Damme, and Sluys, where they fitted out ships to prey on English commerce. Poynings first cleared the sea of the privateers, and then laid siege to Sluys in August, while the Duke of Saxony blockaded it on land. After some hard fighting the two castles defending the town were taken, and the rebels entered into negotiations with Poynings to return to their allegiance. Poynings thereupon joined Henry VII before Boulogne, but the French war was closed almost without bloodshed by the treaty of Etaples on 3 Nov. In 1493 Poynings was acting as deputy or governor of Calais; in July he was sent with Warham on a mission to Duke Philip to procure Warbeck's expulsion from Burgundy, where he had been welcomed by the dowager duchess Margaret; the envoys obtained from Philip a promise that he would abstain from affording aid to Warbeck, but the duke asserted that he could not control the actions of the duchess, who was the real ruler of the country.
Meanwhile Henry had become dissatisfied with the state of affairs in Ireland; it had