Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 47.djvu/152

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The great invention with which Radcliffe's name is associated is the ‘dressing machine,’ which was, however, originated by an ingenious operative machinist in his employment, named Thomas Johnson, who lived at Bredbury, near Stockport. It had previously been only possible for a weaver to dress, or starch, so much of the warp as lay between the healds and yard beam, or about 36 inches, necessitating a frequent stoppage of the loom. By this invention the operation of dressing was done before the warp was put into the loom, thus effecting a great saving of the time and labour of the weaver. By the aid of Johnson he also brought out three other patents, two of them for an improvement in the loom, namely the taking up of the cloth by the motion of the lathe. The patents were taken out in Johnson's name in 1803–4. Radcliffe did not, however, reap any profit by them; the great expenses he incurred in his experiments, and the time wasted in his pertinacious opposition to the exportation of yarn, bringing him to bankruptcy in 1807. Soon after that date he was helped by four friends, who lent him 500l. each, with which he began business once more, carrying it on until 1815, when he became embarrassed again. The Luddites in 1812 broke into his mill and residence, and destroyed both his machinery and furniture. His wife was so alarmed and injured by the rioters that she died a few weeks later. His life afterwards was a continued struggle with adversity. He published in 1828 an account of his struggles, under the title of ‘Origin of the New System of Manufacture, commonly called Power-loom Weaving, and the Purposes for which this System was invented and brought into use fully explained, &c.,’ Stockport, 8vo.

Radcliffe gave valuable evidence in 1808 in the inquiry which resulted in a parliamentary grant of 10,000l. being made to Dr. Edmund Cartwright [q. v.] for his inventions. Efforts were put forth in 1825 and 1836 to obtain similar public recognition of Radcliffe's services, but in vain. In the memorial to the treasury in 1825 it was claimed that his invention, ‘by removing the impediments to weaving by power, may be considered as the cause of the rapid and increasing growth of that system of manufacturing cotton goods.’ In 1834 an unsuccessful appeal was made to the trade to raise a fund to aid Radcliffe in his declining years. Several firms paid him a royalty for the use of his patents. A small grant of 150l. was eventually made to him by government, but the intimation came only three days before his death, which took place on 20 May 1841, when he was in his eighty-first year. He was buried in Mellor churchyard.

His portrait was engraved by T. Oldham Barlow, from a painting by Huquaire, and published by Bennet Woodcroft in his collection of ‘Portraits of Inventors,’ 1862.

[Radcliffe's pamphlets; Blackwood's Mag. January and March 1836, pp. 76, 411; Baines's Hist. of the Cotton Manufacture, p. 231; Memoirs of Edmund Cartwright, 1843, pp. 218, 230; Woodcroft's Brief Biographies of Inventors, 1863; Barlow's Hist. of Weaving, 1878, p. 399; Heginbotham's Hist. of Stockport, 1892, p. 324; Marsden's Cotton Weaving, 1895, p. 328.]

C. W. S.

RADCLYFFE, WILLIAM (1783–1855), line-engraver was born in Birmingham on 20 Oct. 1783, and was indebted to his own efforts for his education. He was at first apprenticed to Mr. Tolley, and under him learnt the art of letter-cutting. He soon obtained some work and credit as an engraver of book illustrations. He was a friend and relative of John Pye [q. v.] the engraver, and they both determined to go and practise their art in London. Radclyffe's resources were, however, insufficient to take him so far, and he returned from Stratford-on-Avon to Birmingham, while Pye proceeded to London. At Birmingham Radclyffe became very intimate with John Vincent Barber [see under Barber, Joseph] and Charles Barber [q. v.] He showed great promise in an engraving of a portrait of Bishop Milner by J. V. Barber, and in 1805 by an engraved portrait of Lord Nelson. Some illustrative engravings by Radclyffe to Goldsmith's ‘Animated Nature’ attracted the attention of Charles Heath [q. v.] the engraver, who gave Radclyffe many commissions for engravings in the numerous art publications which Heath was then issuing. Radclyffe obtained great repute for his skill in landscape engraving, and was one of the best exponents of the highly finished but somewhat mechanical style of engraving then in vogue. He formed in Birmingham a school of engravers, who were for some time the leaders of their profession. Radclyffe showed an early appreciation of the works of the great water-colour artists, J. D. Harding, De Wint, and others, and especially of David Cox the elder [q. v.] Some of these artists were engaged by Radclyffe to make the drawings (now in the Birmingham Art Gallery) for ‘The Graphic Illustrations of Warwickshire,’ published in 1829, in which all the plates were engraved by Radclyffe's own hand. He also engraved many plates after J. M. W. Turner, R.A., who had a high esteem for Radclyffe's work. A second complete set of landscape engravings