the biggest of them,’ he was requested to publish, and a messenger (Thomas Lever [q. v.] or Ralph Lever [q. v.]) was ready booted to ride with the copy to London, when the news arrived of Northumberland's retreat and the success of Queen Mary. The duke, on returning to Cambridge, ordered Sandys to proclaim Queen Mary, which he did in the market-place, at the same time making the somewhat safe prophecy that Northumberland would not escape punishment. He resigned his office of vice-chancellor, and on 25 July 1553 was brought, with others of the party, to London and imprisoned in the Tower. He was afterwards deprived of his mastership on the ground of his marriage, and Edmund Cosin was chosen in his place. In the Tower he had Bradford as a companion for a time, but at Wyatt's rebellion he was removed to the Marshalsea, and nine weeks later, by the mediation of Sir Thomas Holcroft, the knight-marshal, a secret friend to the protestants (Strype, Cranmer, p. 526), he was released and, though searched for, managed to reach Antwerp in May 1554. Edward Isaac helped him greatly, and sent his son with him. Thence Sandys went to Augsburg, and afterwards to Strasburg, where he attended lectures by Peter Martyr (ib. p. 513), and where he was joined by his first wife and a son, both of whom died within a year of their coming. He is said (Strype, Memorials, III. i. 404) to have been also at Frankfurt; but when the news of Queen Mary's death came he was at Peter Martyr's house at Zürich.
Sandys returned to England on 13 Jan. 1558–9, and, although he next month married a second wife, at once received preferment. He was made one of the commissioners for the revision of the Liturgy who met at Sir Thomas Smith's house in Westminster in the early months of 1559, was one of the Lent preachers of 1558–9, and again in 1561. In 1559 he preached also at St. Paul's. In the same year he was one of those who were commissioned to make an ecclesiastical visitation of the north, beginning at St. Mary's, Nottingham, on 22 Aug. And it must have been while on this visitation, and not on 17 Nov. 1558 (Strype, Annals, I. i. 222), that Sandys preached his sermon at York, in which he described Queen Elizabeth in terms which must have delighted her, and which, if, as Strype says, he spoke ‘not of guess but of knowledge,’ says but little for his penetration. Like Grindal, Jewel, and others, Sandys had returned from exile an opponent of vestments, but, like others, he gave way. He was offered the see of Carlisle, but refused it, and was given Worcester. He was consecrated at Lambeth on 21 Dec. 1559.
The biographies of Sandys are filled with accounts of his squabbles. As far as ecclesiastical matters were concerned, Parker was probably right (Strype, Parker, i. 156) when he hinted at his ‘Germanical nature;’ he was an obstinate and conscientious puritan at a time when those in authority wished that men with Romish leanings should be treated indulgently. His zeal naturally showed itself in his visitation, which he began, as Parker (ib.) complained, ‘before he was scarce warm in his seat.’ He signed the articles of 1562, but showed his views in his advice to the convocation of that year on rites and ceremonies, objecting for one thing to the sign of the cross in baptism. He also drew up for the same body certain practical suggestions as to the conduct of ecclesiastical persons (Strype, Annals, I. i. 506). In 1563 Sir John Bourne, who had been secretary of state to Queen Mary, tried to make mischief against Sandys. He wrote to the privy council (ib. I. ii. 15 &c.), charging him with being no gentleman. To all the bishop replied with such effect that Bourne found himself in the Marshalsea, and had to make a submission. The contest, however, is valuable as affording evidence of the impression which the married clergy of a cathedral town made on those of the old way of thinking. Some time afterwards (1569) Sandys spoke of Bourne as his ‘constant and cruel enemy.’
In 1565 Sandys was one of the translators of the Bishops' Bible (cf. Strype, Parker, i. 415). He was well suited for this work, as he was always a studious man and interested in the studies of others (Strype, Annals, I. ii. 221, 540). In 1570 he was, in spite of Parker, who wished for Aylmer, made bishop of London in succession to Grindal, the temporalities being restored on 13 July. He said that he did not want to change. Strype hints that ‘fees and fruits’ may have had some share in making him hesitate; but finally a blunt letter from Cecil brought him to the point. He held his first visitation in the January following, and from the articles and injunctions then used indications of the growth of the puritan spirit may be gathered. On his first coming to his new diocese he concluded by certain articles, dated 18 Dec. 1570, certain disputes which had arisen in the Dutch church of London (cf. Strype, Grindal, pp. 189–96; Hessels, Eccles. Lond. Batav. ii. 352). The next year (1571), however, he was held to have exceeded his authority in regard to the Dutch church by the other members of the eccle-