the golden age of the pseudo-sciences in England. Lilly referred to him in 1677 as an old and valued friend, and he was also a friend and admirer of Ashmole. His almanacs, of which copies are extant for 1681, 1684, and 1686 (all London 12mo), cease from the last-mentioned date. His portrait, engraved by Thomas Cross [q. v.], was prefixed to several of his works. These include: 1. ‘Phisiognomie, Chiromancie … and the Art of Memorie,’ London, 1653, fol., with cuts and portrait; a second edition, very much enlarged, and dealing with ‘Metoposcopie, the Symmetrical Proportions and Signal Moles of the Body,’ appeared in 1671, with a dedication to Elias Ashmole of the Middle Temple. 2. ‘Palmistry, the Secrets thereof disclosed,’ 2nd edit., London, 1664, 12mo. 3. ‘The Astrological Judgment and Practice of Physick, deduced from the Position of the Heavens at the Decumbiture of a Sick Person’ (with portrait, and a letter to the reader by William Lilly), London, 1677, 4to. This is a systematic exposition of astrological therapeutics, based largely upon examination of the urine, sputa, etc., by horoscopical methods. The author is held up as a ‘counterquack’ in commendatory verses by Henry Coley [q. v.], the mathematician, and others.
[Granger's Biogr. Hist. 1779, iv. 107; Colvile's Warwickshire Worthies, p. 633; Hazlitt's Bibl. Collect. 3rd ser. p. 92; Watt's Bibl. Britannica; Brit. Mus. Cat. s.v. ‘Sanders.’]
SAUNDERS, RICHARD HUCK- (1720–1785), physician, whose parents were named Huck, was born in Westmoreland in 1720, and educated at the grammar school of Croughland in Cumberland. After a five years' apprenticeship with a surgeon at Penrith named Neal, he entered as a student at St. Thomas's Hospital, London, where he was a pupil of John Girle. In 1745 he entered the army, and was appointed surgeon to Lord Sempill's regiment, with which he served until the peace of 1748. He then settled at Penrith, and on 13 Oct. 1749 received the degree of M.D. from Marischal College, Aberdeen, after being ‘examined with a solution of a case of medicine and aphorism of Hippocrates.’ In 1750 he was appointed surgeon to the 33rd regiment; he joined it at Minorca, and remained there three years. From 1753 to 1755 he was quartered with his regiment at Edinburgh, availing himself of the opportunity to attend the medical classes at the university. He next went to America under the Earl of Loudoun, by whom he was promoted to the rank of physician to the army. In the latter capacity he served during the whole of the seven years' war, greatly to the benefit of the troops. After the successful expedition against Havannah, in 1762, he returned to England with health impaired; he consequently made a continental tour, journeying through France, Germany, and Italy. He finally settled in Spring Gardens, London, as a physician, and was admitted a licentiate of the College of Physicians on 1 April 1765. He was elected a fellow of the college, speciali gratia, on 18 Sept. 1784. He was appointed physician to Middlesex Hospital in September 1766, and physician to St. Thomas's Hospital on 14 Dec. 1768, when he resigned his office at the former institution. He held his post at St. Thomas's until 1777, when he was succeeded by Dr. H. R. Reynolds. He died in the West Indies on 24 July 1785, leaving a high reputation both with the public and the profession. In 1777 he married Jane, the niece and heiress of Admiral Sir Charles Saunders [q. v.], with whom he acquired a large fortune, and assumed the name and armorial bearings of Saunders in addition to his own. He had issue two daughters and coheirs—Anne, who married, in August 1796, Robert Dundas, second viscount Melville; and Jane, who became, in 1800, the wife of John Fane, tenth earl of Westmorland.
[Munk's Coll. of Phys.; Burke's Peerage; Records of St. Thomas's Hospital; Register of Graduates in Medicine, Marischal College, Aberdeen, kept by James Gordon, professor of medicine, 1734–1755; information supplied by Henry, fifth viscount Melville.]
SAUNDERS, THOMAS WILLIAM (1814–1890), metropolitan police magistrate, second son of Samuel E. Saunders of Bath, by Sarah, his wife, was born on 21 Feb. 1814. He was entered a student at the Middle Temple on 16 April 1832, and called to the bar on 9 June 1837. From 1855 to October 1860 he was recorder of Dartmouth, and from that date to 1878 recorder of Bath. For some years he was a revising barrister, and in December 1872 became a commissioner for hearing municipal election petitions. Mr. Richard Assheton Cross (now Viscount Cross) appointed him a metropolitan police magistrate on 2 Sept. 1878, and he sat at the Thames police-court until his resignation a few days before his death. His decisions were seldom reversed, erring, if at all, on the side of leniency. He died at Bournemouth on 28 Feb. 1890, having married, on 16 Aug. 1854, Frances Gregory, daughter of William Galpine of Newport, Isle of Wight, by whom he had a son, William