Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 50.djvu/428

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of him, painted by John J. Napier in 1861, is in the possession of his family, and a cabinet portrait, painted by Sir Francis Grant, P.R.A., is in the collection of the Duke of Rutland at Belvoir Castle.

[Ninety Years of Work and Play: Sketches from the Public and Private Career of John Christian Schetky, by his daughter, 1877; Times, 9 Feb. 1874; Redgrave's Dict. of Artists of the English School, 1878; Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves and Armstrong, 1886–9, ii. 466; Royal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1805–72.]

R. E. G.


SCHEUTZER, JOHN GASPAR, M.D. (1702–1729), physician, born in Switzerland in 1702, was son of John James Scheutzer of Zürich, the author of the ‘Bibliotheca Scriptorum Historiæ Naturalis,’ the ‘Nova Literaria Helvetica,’ and the ‘Museum Diluvianum.’ He graduated at Zürich in 1722, reading a dissertation ‘De Diluvio.’ He came to England and became librarian to Sir Hans Sloane. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, 14 May 1724, and received the licence of the College of Physicians, 22 March 1725. In 1728 he was created doctor of medicine at Cambridge, when George I visited the university. He died a few months afterwards in Sir Hans Sloane's house, on 10 April 1729.

Scheutzer's only medical work, published in 1729, is ‘An Account of the Success of inoculating the Small Pox, for the years 1727–1728.’ Had he lived he proposed, in succession to Dr. James Jurin [q. v.], to continue the account in each year. He records the inoculation of 124 people, and discusses three cases in which death was said to be due to inoculation, concluding with a comparison of the comparative danger to life of acquired small-pox and of that induced by inoculation. An appendix mentions 244 cases of inoculation at Boston in New England by Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, and twenty-five in Ireland, mostly by Hannibal Hall, a surgeon, and the causes of fatal results are examined. Scheutzer published a paper in the ‘Philosophical Transactions’ on the method of measuring the heights of mountains, and translated Kaempfer's ‘History of Japan and Description of Siam’ in 1727. A medical commonplace book of his, in two volumes, contains little but notes of his reading, and, with several of his letters, is in the Sloane collection in the British Museum. The same collection contains many letters to him from his father, brother, and others. His portrait was painted by J. H. Heidegger and engraved by T. Laud.

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 91; Thomson's Hist. of the Royal Society, 1812; Works.]

N. M.


SCHEVEZ or SCHIVES, WILLIAM (d. 1497), archbishop of St. Andrews, is supposed to have descended from a family that adopted the name from the estate of Schevez in Aberdeenshire. One John de Schevez was clerk to James I in 1426, and may have been the patron through whose influence William Schevez was introduced to the court. Schevez was educated at Louvain under Spiricus the astrologer, and, according to Dempster, ‘he made such progress in astrology, theology, and medicine that he had scarcely his equal in France or Britain.’ His name appears in a charter by James III in 1459, when he is described as archdeacon of St. Andrews; but in a later document he is referred to as ‘formerly Master of the Hospital of St. Mary of Brechin,’ an office inferior to that of the archdeaconry, and probably his first official post. Schevez had become a favourite with James III through his knowledge of astrology, and the king appointed him archdeacon against the advice of Patrick Graham [q. v.], first archbishop of St. Andrews. This opposition made Schevez the enemy of Graham, and it is said that he forged accusations against the archbishop, and ultimately by a bribe of eleven thousand merks induced the king to have Graham suspended from his office. In 1477 Schevez signed himself as ‘Coadjutor of St. Andrews’ when witnessing a charter. He continued his machinations against Graham, and at length Sixtus IV issued a mandate empowering Schevez to depose Graham, who was confined in various prisons and died in 1478. Schevez was raised to the archbishopric and invested with the pall at Holyrood House in 1478, and on 4 Dec. of that year attested a charter as ‘Archbishop of St. Andrews, in the first year of our consecration.’ Before this time he had been frequently chosen by James III as ambassador to foreign courts, visiting England twice in 1476 as commissioner to arrange the dowry of Princess Cecilia, daughter of Edward IV, who was betrothed to James Stewart, duke of Rothesay [q. v.]; and during the remainder of his life Schevez was often sent on political missions to England, France, and Rome. Though he had received many favours from the king, he entered into conspiracy with the nobles against James III, and latterly supported the prince (afterwards James IV) when the revolt occurred which led to the death of the king on the field of Sauchieburn. Schevez retained his power under the new king, and was also employed by him as ambassador. He undertook his last journey in April 1491, when he had a safe-conduct from Henry VII for himself and retinue, to continue in force