(Boswell's Johnson, ii. 155), it is clear that he was sincere and that his life was blameless. He avoided every kind of excess except that of verbal expression, as when he speaks, in 1768, of the ‘dismal wounding news from England, even the vain profusion of expense in diamonds on occasion of the visit of the king of Denmark.’ His first medical book was ‘An Account of Experiments on Joanna Stephen's Medicine for the Stone,’ published in London in 1742. He published in Dublin in 1751 ‘A History of the Rise and Progress of the People called Quakers in Ireland, from 1653 to 1751,’ a continuation of a book originally written by Thomas Wight of Cork in 1700; a fourth edition was issued in 1811. In 1757 he published in London ‘A Methodical Synopsis of Mineral Waters,’ a quarto of 658 pages, which gives an account of the chief mineral springs of the British Isles and of Europe. He had thrown doubt on some statements of Charles Lucas (1713–1771) [q. v.] in his account of the spa of Lisdoonvarna, co. Clare, and Lucas issued a general attack on the book, of which Rutty remarks in his diary ‘a wholesome discipline, though severe.’ He published in Dublin, in 1762, a tract called ‘The Analysis of Milk,’ and in 1770 ‘The Weather and Seasons in Dublin for Forty Years,’ which mentions the prevalent diseases throughout that period. He was always fond of natural history, and in 1772 published ‘A Natural History of the County of Dublin’ in two volumes. His last work was published in quarto at Rotterdam in 1775. It was a Latin treatise on drugs, containing much learning, entitled ‘Materia Medica Antiqua et Nova,’ and is still useful for reference. It had occupied him for forty years. On 6 April 1775 John Wesley (Journal, iv. 40) records that he ‘visited that venerable man Dr. Rutty.’ Rutty then lived in rooms, for which he paid an annual rent of 10l., at the eastern corner of Boot Lane and Mary's Lane in Dublin. He died on 27 April 1775, and was buried in a Quaker burial-ground which occupied the site of the present College of Surgeons in Stephen's Green, Dublin.
[Rutty's Spiritual Diary, 2 vols. 1776, 2nd edit. 1796, 1 vol.; Hibernian Mag. 1775, p. 320; Leadbeater's Biographical Notices of Members of the Society of Friends, London, 1828; Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography, Dublin, 1878; Lucas's Analysis of Dr. Rutty's Methodical Synopsis of Mineral Waters, London, 1757; Smith's Catalogue of Friends' Books; Gent. Mag. 1808, ii. 110; Works; Peacock's Index of Leyden Students; Boswell's Life of Johnson, edit. 1791.]
RUTTY, WILLIAM, M.D. (1687–1730), physician, was born in London in 1687. He entered at Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1707, and there graduated M.B. in 1712 and M.D. on 17 July 1719. He was admitted a candidate or member of the College of Physicians 30 Sept. 1719, and was elected a fellow 30 Sept. 1720. On 13 Aug. 1720 he was a candidate for the osteology lecture at the Barber-Surgeons' Hall, and again 30 Oct. 1721; and was successful when a candidate for the third time on 29 March 1721. On 20 Aug. 1724 he was elected to the viscera lectureship at the same place, and 15 Aug. 1728 to the muscular lectureship. In March 1722 he delivered the Gulstonian lectures at the College of Physicians on the anatomy and diseases of the urinary organs, and published them in quarto in 1726 as ‘A Treatise of the Urinary Passages,’ with a dedication to Sir Hans Sloane. The lectures contain a clear statement of the existing knowledge of the subject, and relate two interesting cases, not to be found elsewhere: one in the practice of John Bamber, lithotomist to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, of calcified concretions in the cæcum giving rise to symptoms resembling renal colic, and the other of double renal calculus in the daughter of Sir Hugh Myddelton [q. v.], from a note by Dr. Francis Glisson [q. v.] He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 30 June 1720, and became second secretary 30 Nov. 1727. He died on 10 June 1730.
[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 74; Young's History of the Barber Surgeons; Thomson's History of the Royal Society; entry in the manuscript matriculation lists at Cambridge sent by Dr. John Peile, master of Christ's College; Works.]
RUVIGNY, Marquis de. [See Massue de Ruvigny, Henri de, second marquis, 1648-1720.]
RYALL, HENRY THOMAS (1811–1867), engraver, was born at Frome, Somerset, in August 1811. He was a pupil of Samuel William Reynolds [q. v.], the mezzotinto engraver, but the style in which he at first worked was that known as ‘chalk’ or ‘stipple.’ He began his career by engraving plates for the editions in folio and in octavo of Lodge's ‘Portraits of Illustrious Personages of Great Britain,’ and for the series of ‘Portraits of Eminent Conservatives and Statesmen,’ as well as for Heath's ‘Book of Beauty’ and other works. His larger and more important plates, however, are a combination of line and stipple, which he brought to a degree of perfection it had never reached before. Foremost among these are ‘The Coronation of Queen Victoria,’