Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 50.djvu/441

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again served directly under the king, assisting at the capture of Ghent and Ypres in March, but subsequently returning to his post of observation on the Meuse. In August 1678 the peace of Nimwegen put an end to the war between France and Holland, the personal interests of Schomberg in the Palatinate being safeguarded by a special article. The peace was followed early in 1679 by a separate treaty with the king of Sweden, on the basis of that of Westphalia; but in consequence of the reluctance of the elector of Brandenburg to surrender his recent conquests in Pomerania, Schomberg, with twenty thousand men, occupied the duchy of Cleves in May 1679. He was, however, growing more and more dissatisfied with the state of affairs in France, and, in a conversation with Henry Sidney in February 1680, hinted that he would gladly seek a home elsewhere. On the renewal of the war with Spain in 1684, he commanded under the king in Flanders, taking part in the capture of Luxembourg on 4 June; but in August he found himself with an army of thirty thousand men in readiness to enter Germany unless the emperor agreed to the terms of the peace of Ratisbon propounded by Louis.

After the revocation of the edict of Nantes (22 Oct. 1685) Schomberg was allowed to retire with his wife and family to Portugal, retaining, as a special mark of favour, his property and the pensions conferred on him by Louis, who, in order to colour his exile, charged him with a semi-diplomatic mission to support the proposed marriage between Pedro II and the Princess Marie-Sophie, daughter of the Elector Philip William. The French ambassador at Lisbon, Amelot, was, however, informed that he would remain in Portugal ‘jusqu'à ce qu'il ait plû à Dieu de le ramener à la religion catholique.’ On his arrival at Lisbon about the end of May 1686, every effort was made both by the French ambassador and Pedro to draw him into the fold of the catholic church. He listened with patience to their arguments, but held out no hope that he would ever change his belief. In the meantime he interested himself in drawing up, at the request of the king of Portugal, a memoir for the better discipline of the army, which he translated into Portuguese. But at last, growing tired of the pertinacity with which he was assailed, and regretting that he was not better employed, ‘if only for the sake of exercise,’ in fighting the Turks, he applied for permission to enter the service of the elector of Brandenburg, ‘prince ami de la France.’

His request met with no response, and in January 1687 he embarked in a Dutch vessel for Holland. Stormy weather rendered the voyage extremely tedious, and compelled him to put into Portsmouth, but he eventually reached The Hague in safety. After an interview with William, when doubtless the subject of the projected expedition to England was broached and promise of his assistance obtained, he proceeded about the middle of April to Berlin. He was received with every mark of respect by the Great Elector Frederick William, who created him a privy councillor, stadtholder of the duchy of Prussia, general-in-chief of the armies of Brandenburg, and gave him the dragoon regiment, at present ‘Kürassier-Regiment groszer Kurfürst Nr. 1.’ He purchased the Dohna palace, unter den Linden, which was speedily thronged by crowds of French refugees; there his wife died in August 1688. He was held in equal honour by Frederick William's successor, Frederick III, and might have ended his days in Berlin had not the spirit of adventure and his promise to the Prince of Orange drawn him to England. Before William's real designs were apparent to Louis, Schomberg suddenly occupied Cologne with a strong force. His resolution to take part in William's enterprise created something like consternation in France. His estates were confiscated, together with the pension he enjoyed from Portugal, and desperate efforts were made by Louis to detach his French companions by offering them half their revenues to quit his standard. In England the feeling of general satisfaction is well expressed by Defoe in his ‘True-born Englishman.’ On 5 Nov. William, accompanied by Schomberg as second in command, landed at Torbay, and they entered Exeter together. His influence prevented William from arming the peasantry that flocked to his standard; but it is said that when Churchill joined the camp, he could not hide his contempt for ‘the first lieutenant-general I ever remember to have deserted his colours.’ On 3 April 1689 the order of the Garter was conferred on him by William; next day he took the oath of naturalisation, and on the 18th he was appointed master-general of the ordnance. On 8 May he was created Baron of Teyes, Earl of Brentford, Marquis of Harwich, and Duke of Schomberg; while parliament, in order to compensate him for his losses in France, and to enable him to purchase an estate in England, made him a present of 100,000l.

Meanwhile the attention of the nation was fixed on Londonderry, where the hope of the protestants and King William hung, as it were, by a thread. In May a relief force under Major-general Kirke was despatched thither, and,