Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 50.djvu/453

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to the South Kensington Museum as a memorial of him (South Kensington Museum: Schreiber Collection of English Porcelain, &c., edited by Lady C. Schreiber, 1885, with portraits of herself and husband).

After collecting fans and fan leaves for many years, she published two magnificent folio volumes entitled ‘Fans and Fan Leaves collected and described by Lady C. Schreiber.’ Vol. i. (1888), with 161 illustrations, contains a description of the English portion of her collection; vol. ii. (1890), with 153 illustrations, treats of foreign fans. She presented these collections to the British Museum in 1891, and a catalogue was printed in 1893. She also interested herself in fan-painting, and offered valuable prizes in public competition for excellence in the art. In recognition of her efforts she was presented with the freedom of the Fanmakers' Company on 17 Dec. 1891.

She also made a large collection of playing-cards, and, after completing the volumes on fans, commenced publishing another sumptuous work entitled ‘Playing Cards of Various Ages and Countries,’ 3 vols., 1892–5. The third volume, which was sent to press after her death, was edited by Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks, who had aided her in preparing the earlier volumes. Vol. i. contains the English, Scottish, Dutch, and Flemish cards; vol. ii. (1893) gives the French and German cards; and vol. iii. (1895) the Swiss, Swedish, &c. By her will she provided for the presentation to the British Museum of such specimens of her playing-cards as the trustees did not already possess. On 1–2 May 1896 Sotheby, Wilkinson, & Hodge sold by auction the remaining portion (Times, 4 May 1896, p. 9). The honorary freedom of the Company of Makers of Playing Cards was presented to Lady Schreiber on 26 Nov. 1892.

During the later years of her life she became blind. She died at Canford Manor, Dorset, the residence of her eldest son, Ivor Guest, baron Wimborne, on 15 Jan. 1895.

[Times, 16 Jan. 1895, p. 6; Daily Graphic, 18 Dec. 1891, p. 8, with portrait; Illustrated London News, 26 Jan. 1895, p. 122, with portrait; information from Alfred Whitman, esq.]

G. C. B.


SCHROEDER, HENRY (1774–1853), topographer and engraver, born at Bawtry, Yorkshire, in 1774, ran away from his home at an early age and passed three years at sea in the merchant service. On his return he settled at Leeds, where he successfully practised engraving for nearly twenty years under the name of William Butterworth. He engraved a series of plates, 111 in number, containing 587 figures, illustrative of ‘The Young Sea Officer's Sheet Anchor; or a Key to .... Practical Seamanship, by Darcy Lever,’ Leeds, 1808 and 1819, 4to, and wrote ‘Three Years' Adventures of a Minor in England, Africa, the West Indies, South Carolina, and Georgia, by William Butterworth, Engraver,’ Leeds [1822], 8vo. Schroeder issued in 1851 ‘The Annals of Yorkshire, from the earliest period to the present time’ (2 vols. Leeds, 8vo), a poor compilation. He was also one of the chief compilers of ‘Pigott's General Directory,’ and composed several poems and provincial songs, including the much-admired Yorkshire ditty, ‘When first in Lunnon I arrived, on a visit.’ He was usually poor and struggling, but at one period he was landlord of the Shakspere Head public-house, Kirkgate. He died at Leeds on 18 Feb. 1853.

[Boyne's Yorkshire Library, p. 29; Ingledew's Ballads and Songs of Yorkshire, p. 294; Leeds Intelligencer, 26 Feb. 1853, p. 8, col. 5; Mayhall's Annals of Yorkshire, 1st edit. i. 626; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 405, 479, x. 363 Taylor's Biogr. Leodiensis, p. 453 n.]

T. C.


SCHULENBERG, Countess Ehrengard Melusina von der, Duchess of Kendal (1667–1743), was born on 25 Dec. 1667 at Emden in the present Prussian province of Saxony. Emden was the estate of her father, Count Gustavus Adolphus of the ‘white’ or elder line of the ancient Schulenburg house, who, having inherited an impoverished estate, died as a high official in the service of the elector of Brandenburg. Her eldest brother Matthias John, afterwards obtained, more especially in the service of the Venetian republic, a well-deserved renown as one of the greatest commanders of his age. In his earlier manhood he very actively furthered the interests of the elder (Wolfenbüttel) line of the house of Brunswick, with which those of the younger were in constant conflict. Yet about this time his sister Melusina found her way as maid of honour into the service of the duchess, from 1692 electress, Sophia at Hanover. Here she attracted Sophia's son, Prince George Lewis (afterwards King George I), whose relations with his wife, the unfortunate Sophia Dorothea, were already strained. After the divorce of the prince (1694) she continued to enjoy his favour, and in the period between his succession to the electorate (1698) and his ascent of the British throne ‘the Schulemburgin,’ as the Electress Sophia calls her in varied spellings, held an accredited position as one of his mistresses (see Briefe der Kurfürstin Sophie an die Raugräfinnen und Raugrafen zu Pfalz, ed. Bodemann, Leipzig, 1888, pp. 232, 252, 304, 343; De Beaucaire, Une Mésalliance