Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 54.djvu/118

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1823 he was elected Downing professor of law at Cambridge. Originally a tory in politics, Starkie afterwards became a liberal, and in that interest unsuccessfully contested the representation of the borough of Cambridge in 1840. In 1847 he became judge of the Clerkenwell county court, which had jurisdiction over the greater part of Middlesex. He died at his rooms in Downing College, Cambridge, on 15 April 1849.

He married Lucy, daughter of the Rev. Thomas Dunham Whitaker [q. v.], the historian of Whalley, and had five children, of whom two daughters survived him.

Starkie was author of: 1. ‘Practical Treatise on the Law of Slander, Libel, and incidentally of Malicious Prosecutions,’ 1812. Later editions were published in 1827, 1830, and 1869, and American editions were brought out in 1832, 1843, 1852, and 1853, edited by T. Huntington and J. L. Wendell. 2. ‘Treatise on Special Pleading, with Precedents of Indictments,’ 1814, 2 vols.; later editions 1819, 1822, 1828, and an American edition, 1824. 3. ‘Reports at Nisi Prius, K.B. and C.P.,’ 1817–23, 3 vols. 4. ‘Practical Treatise on the Law of Evidence,’ 1824, 3 vols. Of this, Starkie's chief work, revised editions were issued in 1833, 1842, and 1853. It was often reprinted in America.

[Law Review, May 1849, p. 201; Gent. Mag. 1849, ii. 208; Graduati Cantabr.]

C. W. S.

STARLEY, JAMES (1831–1881), improver of bicycles and inventor of the Coventry tricycle, born at Albourne, Sussex, on 21 April 1831, was son of Daniel Starley (d. 1856), a farmer. At the age of nine he commenced working on his father's farm; but, not liking the place, about 1846 he walked to London and became gardener to John Penn at Lewisham in Kent. While there he invented the adjustable candlestick, the one-stringed window blind, and the mechanical bassinette. About 1855 he entered the employment of Newton Wilson, 144 High Holborn, London, and made improvements in sewing machines. In 1857 he went to Coventry, bringing with him a sewing machine of his own invention, which he called ‘The European.’ The Coventry Machinists' Company was formed for manufacturing this machine, and Starley was engaged as managing foreman. In the succeeding years he invented and patented many kinds of sewing machines, and most of the modern machines now embody the results of his inventions. After seeing a French bicycle, in 1868, he immediately turned his attention to improving these vehicles. His first invention was the bicycle known as ‘The C spring and step machine, or the Coventry Model.’ The superiority of this was at once evident, the curved spring, the small hind wheel, and the step for mounting being the principal improvements. The ‘Ariel’ bicycle, which became widely popular, speedily followed. This machine was fitted with pivot-centre steering, being the first bicycle to which this improvement was applied. From that time his inventions and improvements followed each other in rapid succession. He left the Machinists' Company and started for himself in St. John Street, where he made ‘Ariel’ bicycles and sewing machines, and brought out the well-known ‘Europa’ sewing machine. Subsequently he went into partnership with Borthwick Smith, and the firm of Smith, Starley, & Co. commenced business at the St. Agnes Works, St. Agnes Lane, Coventry. Later on they sold the ‘Ariel’ patents. Starley dissolved the partnership with Smith after five years.

Still endeavouring to improve the bicycle, he finally introduced the ‘Tangent’ bicycle, and was fully employed in making ‘Tangent’ wheels. In 1876 he brought out the ‘Coventry’ tricycle. No similar machine is known to have existed before, and Starley may be regarded as its inventor. He invented the double-throw crank and the chain and chain-wheels to obtain rotary motion in tricycles, and the rack, and he first applied the pinion steering-gear to the same machine. Subsequently he produced his masterpiece, the ‘Salvo’ quadricycle.

Starley, by his many improvements, rendered bicycles and tricycles machines capable of general use. To his perseverance and energy Coventry owes its position as the centre of industry for the manufacture of cycles. Starley's ingenuity was as remarkably displayed in inventions which he failed to patent. These included the chain-wheels of the tricycle.

He died at Upper Well Street, Coventry, on 17 June 1881, and was buried in Coventry cemetery on 21 June. On 8 Nov. 1884 a granite memorial monument, having on it a portrait in profile of Starley, and on the sides representations of the ‘Rotatory’ tricycle and the ‘Royal Salvo,’ was unveiled in the Queen's Road, Coventry.

Starley married, on 22 Sept. 1853, Jane, daughter of William Todd. His three sons—James, John Marshall, and William—are members of the firm of Starley Brothers, cycle manufacturers, Coventry.

[Pall Mall Gazette, 23 June 1881, p. 10; Coventry Standard, 24 June 1881 pp. 3, 5, 1 July p. 5, 8 July p. 5, 14 Nov. 1884 p. 3;