Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 54.djvu/318

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fourth lord Ochiltree, and Henry. For bringing a charge of treason against the Marquis of Hamilton that, in pretending in 1631 to raise troops for the aid of Gustavus Adolphus, he was aiming to secure his right to the Scottish crown, Lord Ochiltree was convicted of lease-making, and sentenced to imprisonment for life in Blackness Castle; he was released in 1652 by the English after the battle of Worcester.

[Histories by Calderwood and Spotiswood; Reg. P. C. Scotl.; Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot.; Melville's Memoirs; Papers of the Master of Gray; Moysie's Memoirs; History of James the Sext in the Bannatyne Club; Calendar of Scottish State Papers; Bowes Correspondence in the Surtees Society; Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Paul), i. 396; Cal. Privy Council Reg. Scotland, v. lxii.; G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage.]

T. F. H.

STEWART, JAMES, fourth Duke of Lennox and Duke of Richmond (1612–1655). [See Stuart.]

STEWART, JAMES (1791–1863), engraver, was born at Edinburgh in October or November 1791. He was articled to Robert Scott [q. v.] the engraver, and had as his fellow pupil John Burnet [q. v.], from whom he received much assistance; he also studied drawing in the Trustees' Academy, and became a very able line engraver. Stewart's first independent plate was from Sir William Allan's ‘Tartar Robbers dividing the Spoil,’ which was followed by ‘Circassian Captives,’ 1820; ‘The Murder of Archbishop Sharpe,’ 1824; and ‘Queen Mary signing her Abdication,’ all from paintings by Allan. He then became associated with David Wilkie, for whom he executed, with several minor works, an admirable plate of the ‘Penny Wedding.’ On the foundation of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1826 he became an original member. In 1830 Stewart removed to London, where he engraved ‘The Pedlar,’ after Wilkie, and ‘Hide and Seek,’ from a picture painted by himself in the style of Wilkie, which was exhibited at the British Institution in 1829. In 1833 he was induced by financial embarrassment to abandon his profession and emigrate to Cape Colony; there he settled as a farmer, but within a year lost everything through the outbreak of the Kaffir war. He then went to reside in the town of Somerset, where, by teaching and portrait-painting, he earned the means of purchasing another property. He subsequently became a magistrate and a member of the legislature, and died in the colony in May 1863.

[Art Journal, August 1863; Redgrave's Dict. of Artists.]

F. M. O'D.

STEWART or STUART, JAMES FRANCIS EDWARD (1688–1766), the Old Pretender. [See James Francis Edward Stuart.]

STEWART, JOHN, Earl of Buchan (1381?–1424), born about 1381, was the eldest son of the second marriage of Robert Stewart, first duke of Albany [q. v.] The first notice of him is in a grant made before 1399 to him and his younger brothers, Andrew and Robert, of the lands of Coull and O'Neil in Aberdeenshire (Exchequer Rolls, vol. iv. p. clxxxi), and in later years, it is said, his valour obtained for him the popular epithet of ‘brave John O'Coul.’ He held only the rank of ‘squire’ in 1406, but on 20 Sept. of that year (Duncan Stewart, History of the Stewarts, p. 114) he received from his father, then governor of Scotland, the earldom of Buchan, which had fallen to the crown by the death of his uncle, Alexander Stewart (1343?–1405?) [q. v.] In 1407 he was appointed chamberlain of Scotland, an office which he held till his death, and in 1415 he succeeded his niece, Euphemia Lesley, in the earldom of Ross.

The events which gained fame for the earl began in 1418, when an embassy arrived from France earnestly pleading for Scottish aid to assist the dauphin (afterwards Charles VII) against the English. In answer the earl led a force of six thousand Scots by sea to Rochelle in Spanish and other ships provided, and arrived at the French court in October 1419. He and the other Scottish leaders were well received, but no special occasion arose for distinguishing themselves, and the earl appears to have returned to Scotland on a mission for more money and more men. He was again in France in the early part of 1421, when the Scots and their allies under his command completely defeated the English at Beaugé. The English leader, the Duke of Clarence, was slain, and his death has been ascribed to Buchan's own hand, but this is doubtful; in a letter announcing the victory to the dauphin the earl only states that the duke had been killed [see Thomas, Duke of Clarence, d. 1421]. This success won for the earl the office of constable of France, and he also received the remarkable gift of the person of an astrologer, who is said to have predicted the deaths of Charles VI and Henry V. The earl marched into Normandy, took Avranches and laid siege to Alençon, while he also gained other places for the dauphin. About this time overtures were made to him by his native prince, James I, then in France with the English king, but he and