London the day before her coronation (ib. p. 349). Luckier than Edmund, Thomas gave no opportunity to the jealousy of Mortimer, and survived to welcome Edward III's attainment of power. On 17–19 June 1331 he fought along with the king on the side of Sir Robert de Morley [q. v.] in a famous tournament at Stepney, riding, gorgeously attired, through London on 16 June, and making an offering at St. Paul's (ib. pp. 353–354). In 1337 he was employed in arraying Welsh soldiers for the king's wars (Fœdera, iii. 986). Knighton (ii. 4) says that he was one of the lords who accompanied Edward III to Antwerp in July 1338, but the other chroniclers do not seem to substantiate this. Thomas died next month (August 1338), and was buried in the choir of the abbey church, where a monument was erected to him that perished after the dissolution at Bury St. Edmunds. In September Edward, at Antwerp, appointed William de Montacute, first earl of Salisbury [q. v.], his successor as marshal (Fœdera, iii. 1060).
Thomas married, first, Alice, daughter of Sir Roger Hales of Harwich; and, secondly, Mary, daughter of William, lord Roos, and widow of Sir William de Braose. Mary Roos survived her husband, married Ralph, lord Cobham, and died in 1362. Thomas's only son, Edward, was born of his first wife, and married Beatrice, daughter of Roger Mortimer, first earl of March [q. v.], but died without issue in his father's lifetime. His widow, who subsequently married Thomas de Braose (d. 1361), died herself in 1384. She founded a fraternity of lay brothers within the Franciscan priory at Fisherton, Wiltshire, and also a chantry for six priests at the same place.
Thomas's estates were divided between his two daughters, Margaret and Alice. Alice married Sir Edward de Montacute, brother of William, earl of Salisbury, and had by him a daughter Joan, who married William de Ufford, the last earl of Suffolk [q. v.] of his house. On the death of her niece Joan, countess of Suffolk, daughter of Alice, Margaret became in 1375 the sole heiress of her father's estates. On the accession of Richard II she petitioned to be allowed to act as marshal at the coronation, but the request was politely shelved (Munim. Gildhall. Lond. ii. 458). She married, first, John Segrave, third lord Segrave [q. v.], by whom she had a daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, married to John, lord Mowbray (d. 1368), to whose son, Thomas Mowbray, first duke of Norfolk [q. v.], the estates and titles ultimately went. Margaret married, secondly, Sir Walter Manny [q. v.], who died in 1372. She was created on 29 Sept. 1397 Duchess of Norfolk for life, on the same day that her grandson, Thomas Mowbray, was made Duke of Norfolk. She died on 24 March 1400, and was buried in the church of the London Franciscans at Newgate.
[Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 63–4; Nicolas's Hist. Peerage, ed. Courthope, p. 351; G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage, vi. 40–1; Sandford's Genealogical History, pp. 205–6; Cals. of Patent Rolls, Edward I 1292–1307, Edward II 1327–1338; Cal. Close Rolls, 1307–23; Rymer's Fœdera; Annales Monastici; Rishanger; Flores Hist.; Knighton; Chron. Edward I, Edward II, and Murimuth, the last six in Rolls Ser.; Chron. Geoffrey le Baker, ed. E. M. Thompson.]
THOMAS of Woodstock, Earl of Buckingham and Duke of Gloucester (1355–1397), seventh and youngest son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, was born at Woodstock on 7 Jan. 1354–5 (Walsingham, i. 280). Edward provided for his youngest son by affiancing him in 1374 to a rich heiress, Eleanor, the elder of the two daughters of the last Bohun, earl of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton. The earls of Hereford having been hereditary constables of England, Thomas received a grant on 10 June 1376 of that office during pleasure, with a thousand marks a year to keep it up, and was summoned as constable to the parliament of January 1377 (Rot. Parl. ii. 363). He appears later at all events to have been styled Earl of Essex in right of his wife (Complete Peerage, iv. 43). Having been knighted by his father at Windsor on 23 April 1377 he carried the sceptre and the dove at the coronation of his nephew, Richard II, and was created Earl of Buckingham (15 July), with a grant of a thousand pounds a year out of the alien priories (Cal. of Pat. Rolls, i. 372). A considerable part of the Bohun estates had already, in anticipation of his wife's majority, been placed in his keeping, including Pleshey Castle in Essex, which became his chief seat; and in May 1380, his wife being now of age, he was also given custody of the share of her younger sister, Mary (ib. pp. 66, 502).
A French and Spanish fleet ravaging the southern coast in the summer, Buckingham and his brother Edmund averted a landing at Dover (Froissart, viii. 237). In October he was sent against the Spaniards, who were windbound at Sluys, but his squadron was scattered by a storm. Refitting and following the Spaniards down the Channel, he captured eight of their ships off Brest, returning after Christmas (Walsingham, i. 343, 364). On