the royalists at Rathmines, on 2 Aug. 1649, Vaughan led the charge in repulsing him, but was killed, dying 'bravely at the head of his men,' who were thereupon seized with panic, and could not be brought to rally (Carte, iii. 464-8, 471; cf. Verney, Memoirs, ii. 343; cf. Peacock, Army List, pp. 11-12).
On 8 Oct. 1651 Charles Vaughan, his administrator, applied for leave to compound for his estate, permission to which effect was granted (Cal. of Proceedings of Committee for Compounding, p. 2880).
VAUGHAN, WILLIAM (1716?–1780?), Jacobite soldier and Spanish officer, born about 1716, was the third son of John Vaughan (1675–1752) of Courtfield, near Ross, Herefordshire, by his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Philip Jones of Llanarth, Monmouthshire. Both families have always been Roman catholic, and to the former belonged Thomas Vaughan who entered Douay in 1622, and, having taken orders, was sent upon the English mission on 27 Aug. 1628, but ‘fell a victim to the persecution commenced in 1641’ (Challoner, ii. 210). After the landing of Charles Edward in Scotland in 1745, William Vaughan left Monmouthshire for the north, in the company of David Morgan (who was executed for high treason on 30 July 1746), and joined the prince's army at Preston on 27 Nov. (Cambrian Journal, viii. 310–11; Wales, January 1895, pp. 20–3; cf. Howell, State Trials, xviii. 372). Vaughan was at first attached to the prince's life-guards, but subsequently served as lieutenant-colonel in the Manchester regiment. He was present at Culloden, but succeeded in effecting his escape into France. Early in 1747 he accompanied Prince Charles on his journey from Paris to Madrid (see Charles's letter to his father, dated 12 March 1747, in Lord Mahon, Hist. of England, vol. iii. App. p. xxxviii, and Ewald, Life of Charles, ii. 147), and on Charles's recommendation was admitted into the Spanish service, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, in the regiment called Hibernia. In this he served over twenty-nine years, attaining in December 1773 the rank of brigadier-general. On 26 Oct. 1777 he was appointed major-general (mariscal de campo) of the royal armies, but towards the end of 1778 he joined the expedition to Buenos Ayres. He is last mentioned in the Spanish records under date of 29 March 1780 as being nominated to serve with the troops under the general command of Don Vittoria de Navia. He probably died soon after.
His elder brother, Richard Vaughan (b. 1708), the second son, also took part in the Jacobite rising, joined the Duke of Perth's division, and was likewise present at Culloden. He also subsequently entered the Spanish service, and died in that country, having married a Spanish lady, Donna Francesca, by whom he had a daughter Elizabeth (who was married to Colonel Count of Kilmallock, in the Spanish service), and a son William (1740–1796), who succeeded to the Courtfield estate, and continued the line, Cardinal Vaughan and Roger William Vaughan [q. v.] being his great-grandsons.
[Extracts from the Archives of the Spanish War Office at Simancas, kindly communicated by His Eminence Cardinal Vaughan. See also Burke's Landed Gentry, s.v. ‘Vaughan of Courtfield;’ Clark's Genealogies of Glamorgan, p. 267; Coxe's Monmouthshire, p. 346.]
VAUGHAN, WILLIAM (1752–1850), merchant and author, born on 22 Sept. 1752, was the second son of Samuel Vaughan, a London merchant, by his wife Sarah, daughter of Benjamin Hallowell of Boston, Massachusetts. Benjamin Vaughan [q. v.] was his elder brother. He was educated at Newcome's school at Hackney and at the academy at Warrington in Lancashire. His studies were much directed to geography, history, travels, and voyages of discovery. After leaving school he entered his father's business, and soon became prominent in mercantile and commercial questions. In 1783 he was elected a director of the Royal Exchange Assurance Corporation, and continued in it, as director, sub-governor, and governor, until 1829. During the naval mutiny at the Nore in 1797 Vaughan formed one of the committee of London merchants convened to meet at the Royal Exchange to take prompt measures to restore tranquillity. He proved extremely active, and independently drew up a short address to the seamen which was put in circulation by the naval authorities. In 1791 he had endeavoured to form a society for the promotion of English canals, and, with this end in view, made a collection, in three folio volumes, of plans and descriptions relating to the subject. Failing in his object, he turned his attention to docks, on which he became one of the first authorities. From 1793 to 1797 he published a series of pamphlets and tracts advocating the construction of docks for the port of London, and on 22 April 1796 he gave evidence before a parliamentary committee in favour of the bill for establishing wet docks. The great development of London