Page:EB1911 - Volume 01.djvu/1024

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

colour and fused tone and transparence; in fresco more especially his predilection for varied tints appears excessive. It may be broadly said that his taste in colouring was derived mainly from Fra Bartolommeo, and in form from Michelangelo; and his style partakes of the Venetian and Lombard, as well as the Florentine and Roman—some of his figures are even adapted from Albert Dürer. In one way or other he continued improving to the last. In drawing from nature, his habit was to sketch very slightly, making only such a memorandum as sufficed to work from. The scholars of Andrea were very numerous; but, according to Vasari, they were not wont to stay long, being domineered over by his wife; Pontormo and Domenico Puligo may be mentioned.

In this account of Andrea del Sarto we have followed the main lines of the narrative of Crowe and Cavalcaselle, supplemented by Vasari, Lanzi and others.

There are biographies by Biadi (1829), by von Reumont (1831), by Baumann (1878), and by Guinness (1899). (W. M. R.)

ANDREANI, ANDREA, Italian engraver on wood, in chiaroscuro, was born at Mantua about 1540 (Brulliot says 1560) and died at Rome in 1623. His engravings are scarce and valuable, and are chiefly copies of Mantegna, Dürer and Titian. The most remarkable of his works are “Mercury and Ignorance,” the “Deluge,” “Pharaoh's host drowned in the Red Sea” (after Titian), the “Triumph of Caesar” (after Mantegna), and “Christ retiring from the judgment-seat of Pilate.”

ANDREE, KARL (1808–1875), German geographer, was born at Brunswick on the 20th of October 1808. He was educated at Jena, Göttingen and Berlin. After having been implicated in a students' political agitation he became a journalist, and in 1851 founded the Bremer Handelsblatt. From 1855, however, he devoted himself entirely to geography and ethnography, working successively at Leipzig and at Dresden. In 1862 he founded the important geographical periodical Globus. His works include Nordamerika in geographischen und geschichtlichen Umrissen (Brunswick, 1854), Geographische Wanderungen (Dresden, 1859), and Geographie des Welthandels (Stuttgart, 1867–1872). He died at Wildungen on the 10th of August 1875.

His son Richard, born on the 26th of February 1835, followed his father's career, devoting himself especially to ethnography. He wrote numerous books on this subject, dealing notably with the races of his own country, while an important general work was Ethnographische Parallelen und Vorgleiche (Stuttgart, 1878). He also took up cartography, having a chief share in the production of the Physikalisch-statistische Atlas des deutschen Reiches (Leipzig, 1877), Allgemeine Handatlas (first ed., 1881), and other atlases; and he continued the editorship of the Globus.

ANDRÉE, SALOMON AUGUST (1854-1897 ?), Swedish engineer, was born at Grenna, on Lake Vetter, on the 18th of October 1854. After education at the Stockholm technical college, he studied aeronautics, and in 1895 elaborated a plan for crossing the north polar region by a balloon which should be in some degree dirigible by sails and trailing ropes. After an abortive effort in 1896, the winds being contrary, he started with two companions from Danes Island, Spitsbergen, on the 11th of July 1897. The party was never seen again, nor is the manner of its fate known. Of several expeditions sent in search of it, the first started in November 1897, on the strength of a report of cries of distress heard by shipwrecked sailors at Spitsbergen; in 1898 and 1899 parties searched the north Asiatic coast and the New Siberia Islands; and in May 1899 Dr Nathorst headed an expedition to eastern Greenland. None was successful, and only scanty information was obtained or inferred from the discovery of a few buoys (on the west of Spitsbergen, northern Norway, Iceland, &c.) which the balloonists had arranged to drop, and a message taken from a carrier pigeon dispatched from the balloon two days after its ascent. There were also messages in two of the buoys, but they dated only from the day of the ascent. The others were empty.

ANDREINI, FRANCESCO, Italian actor, was born at Pistoia in the last half of the 16th century. He was a member of the company of the Gelosi which Henry IV. summoned to Paris to please his bride, the young queen Marie de' Medici. His wife Isabella Andreini (1562-1604) was a member of her husband's company, distinguished alike for her acting and her character,—commemorated in the medal struck at Lyons in the year of her death, with her portrait on one side, and the figure of Fame on the reverse with the words aeterna fama. She was also known in literature, her books including a pastoral, Mirtilla (Verona, 1588), a volume of songs, sonnets and other poems (Milan, 1601), and a collection of letters, published after her death. She inspired many of the French poets, notably Isaac du Ryer (d. c. 1631). Her son Giambattista Andreini (1578-1650) was born in Florence, and had a great success as a comedian in Paris under the name of Leylio. He was a favourite with Louis XIII., and also with the public, especially as the young lover. He left a number of plays full of extravagant imagination. The best known are L'Adamo (Milan, 1613), The Penitent Magdalene (Mantua, 1617), and The Centaur (Paris, 1622). From the first of these three volumes, which are extremely rare, Italians have often asserted that Milton, travelling at that time in their country, took the idea of Paradise Lost.

ANDRÉOSSY, ANTOINE-FRANÇOIS, Count (1761-1828), French soldier and diplomatist, was born at Castelnaudary, in Languedoc, on the 6th of March 1761. He was of Italian extraction, and his ancestor François Andréossy (1633-1688) had been concerned with Riquet in the construction of the Languedoc Canal in 1669. He had a brilliant career at the school of artillery at Metz, obtained his commission in 1781, and became captain in 1788. On the outbreak of the Revolution he adopted its principles. He saw active service on the Rhine in 1794 and in Italy in 1795, and in the campaign of 1796-97 was employed in engineer duties with the Army of Italy. He became chef de brigade in December 1796 and general of brigade in 1798, in which year he accompanied Bonaparte to Egypt. He served in the Egyptian campaign with distinction, and was selected as one of Napoleon's companions on his return to Europe. Andréossy took part in the coup d'état of the 18th of Brumaire, and on the 6th of January 1800 was made general of division. Of particular importance was his term of office as ambassador to England during the short peace which followed the treaties of Amiens and Lunéville. It had been shown (Coquille, Napoleon and England, 1904) that Andréossy repeatedly warned Napoleon that the British government desired to maintain peace but must be treated with consideration. His advice, however, was disregarded. When Napoleon became emperor he made Andréossy inspector-general of artillery and a count of the empire. In the war of 1805 Andréossy was employed on the headquarters staff of Napoleon. From 1808 to 1809 he was French ambassador at Vienna, where he displayed a hostility to Austria which was in marked contrast to his friendliness to England in 1802-1803. In the war of 1809, Andréossy was military governor of Vienna during the French occupation. In 1812 he was sent by Napoleon as ambassador to Constantinople, where he carried on the policy initiated by Sébastiani. In 1814 he was recalled by Louis XVIII. Andréossy now retired into private life, till the escape of his former master from Elba once again called him forth. In 1826 he was elected to the Académie des Sciences, and in the following year was deputy for the department of the Aude. His numerous works included the following:—on artillery (with which arm he was most intimately connected throughout his military career), Quelques idées relatives à l'usage de l'artillerie dans l'attaque et ... la défense des places (Metz); Essai sur le tir des projectiles creux (Paris, 1826); and on military history, Campagne sur le Main el la Rednitz de l'armée gallo-batave (Paris, 1802); Opérations des pontonniers en Italie . . . 1795-1796 (Paris, 1843). He also wrote scientific memoirs on the mouth of the Black Sea (1818-1819); on certain Egyptian lakes (during his stay in Egypt); and in particular the history of the Languedoc Canal (Histoire du canal du Midi, 2nd ed., Paris, 1804), the chief credit of which he claimed for his ancestor. Andréossy died at Montauban in 1828.

See Marion, Notice nécrologique sur le Lt.-Général Comte Andréossy.