Page:EB1911 - Volume 01.djvu/964

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from recombining the letters of the original word, the difficulty lying in the fact that synonyms of the derived words may be used. Thus, if the original word be “curtain,” the word “dog” may be used instead of “cur.”

ANAH, or ‛Āna, a town on the Euphrates, about mid-way between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Persian Gulf. It is called Hanat in a Babylonian letter (about 2200 B.C.), and An-at by the scribe of Assur-naşir-pal (879 B.C.), Άναθω (Isidore Charax), Anatha (Ammianus Marcellinus) by Greek and Latin writers in the early Christian centuries, ‛Āna (sometimes, as if plural, ‛Ānāt) by Arabic writers. The name has been connected with that of the deity Anat. Whilst ‛Āna has thus retained its name for forty-one centuries the site is variously described. Most early writers concur in placing it on an island; so Assur-naşir-pal, Isidore, Ammianus Marcellinus, Ibn Serapion, al-Istakri, Abulfeda and al-Ķaramāni. Ammianus (lib. 24, c. 2) calls it a munimentum, Theophylactus Simocatta (iv. 10, v. 1, 2) τὸ Άναθων φρούριον, Zosimus (iii. 14) a φρούριον, opp. Φαθυσαι, which may be the Βεθ(θ)ινα of Ptolemy (v. 19).[1] Leonhart Rauwolff, in A.D. 1574, found it “divided . . . into two towns,” the one “Turkish,” “so surrounded by the river, that you cannot go into it but by boats,” the other, much larger, on the Arabian side of the river.[2] G. A. Olivier in the beginning of the 19th century describes it as a long street (5 or 6 m. long), parallel to the right bank of the Euphrates—some 100 yards from the water's edge and 300 to 400 paces from the rocky barrier of the Arabian desert—with, over against its lower part, an island bearing at its north end the ruins of a fortress (p. 451).

This southernmost town of Mesopotamia proper (Gezīra) must have shared the chequered history of that land (see Mesopotamia). Of ‛Āna’s fortunes under the early Babylonian empire the records have not yet been unearthed; but in a letter dating from the third millennium B.C., six men of Hanat (Ha-na-atK1) are mentioned in a statement as to certain disturbances which had occurred in the sphere of the Babylonian Resident of Suhi, which would include the district of ‛Āna. How ‛Āna fared at the hands of the Mitanni and others is unknown. The suggestion that Amenophis (Amenḥotep) I. (16th century B.C.) refers to it is improbable; but we seem to be justified in holding ‛Āna to be the town “in the middle of the Euphrates” opposite (ina put) to which Assur-naşir-pal halted in his campaign of 879 B.C. The supposed reference to ‛Āna in the speech put into the mouth of Sennacherib's messengers to Hezekiah (2 Kings xix. 13, Is. xxxvii. 13) is exceedingly improbable. The town may be mentioned, however, in four 7th century documents edited by C. H. W. Johns.[3] It was at ‛Āna that the emperor Julian met the first opposition on his disastrous expedition against Persia (363), when he got possession of the place and transported the people; and there that Ziyād and Shureiḥ with the advanced guard of 'Ali's army were refused passage across the Euphrates (36/657) to join 'Ali in Mesopotamia (Ţabari i. 3261). Later ‛Āna was the place of exile of the caliph Qaim (al-Qāim bi-amr-illāh) when Basīsīri was in power (450/1058). In the 14th century ‛Āna was the seat of a Catholicos, primate of the Persians (Marin Sanuto). In 1610 Della Valle found a Scot, George Strachan, resident at ‛Āna (to study Arabic) as physician to the amīr (i. 671-681). In 1835 the steamer “Tigris” of the English Euphrates expedition went down in a hurricane just above ‛Āna, near where Julian's force had suffered from a similar storm. Della Valle described ‛Āna as the chief Arab town on the Euphrates, an importance which it owes to its position on one of the routes from the west to Bagdād; Texeira said that the power of its amīr extended to Palmyra (early 17th century); but Olivier found the ruling prince with only twenty-five men in his service, the town becoming more depopulated every day from lack of protection from the Arabs of the desert. Von Oppenheim (1893) reported that Turkish troops having been recently stationed at the place, it had no longer to pay blackmail (huwwa) to the Arabs. F. R. Chesney reported some 1800 houses, 2 mosques and 16 water-wheels; W. F. Ainsworth (1835) reported the Arabs as inhabiting the N.W. part of the town, the Christians the centre, and the Jews the S.E.; Della Valle (1610) found some sun-worshippers still there.

Modern ‛Āna lies from W. to E. on the right bank along a bend of the river just before it turns S. towards Hīt, and presents an attractive appearance. It extends, chiefly as a single street, for several miles along a narrow strip of land between the river and a ridge of rocky hills. The houses are separated from one another by fruit gardens. ‛Āna marks the boundary between the olive (N.) and the date (S.). Arab poets celebrated its wine (Yāqūt, iii. 593 f.), and Mustaufi (8/14th century) tells of the fame of its palm-groves. In the river, facing the town, is a succession of equally productive islands. The most easterly contains the ruins of the old castle, whilst the remains of the ancient Anatho extend from this island for about 2 m. down the left bank. Coarse cloth is almost the only manufacture.

Bibliography.—In addition to the authorities cited above may be mentioned: G. A. Olivier, Voyage dans l'empire othoman, &'c., iii. 450-459 (1807); Carl Ritter, Erdkunde von Asien, vii. b., pp. 716-726 (1844); W. F. Ainsworth, Euphrates Expedition, i. 401-418 (1888). For a map see sheet 5 of the atlas accompanying Chesney's work.

(H. W. H.)

ANAHEIM, a city of Orange county, California, U.S.A., about 24 m. S.E. of Los Angeles, about 12 m. from the Pacific Ocean, and about 3 m. from the Santa Ana river. (1900) 1456; (1910) 2628. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé, and the Southern Pacific railways. It lies in a fine fruit region, in which oranges, lemons, apricots, grapes and walnuts are raised. The plain on which it is laid out, now fertile and well-watered, was originally an arid waste. Water for irrigation is obtained from the Santa Ana river, about 15 m. above the nearest point along the river to the city. The city itself has an area of only 1½ sq. m., and in 1908 the population of the district, including that of the city, was estimated at 5000. The principal manufactures are dried and canned fruits, wine, beer, and agricultural implements. Anaheim is of particular interest as the earliest of various settlements in southern California in which co-operation has made possible the establishment of intensive fruit culture in semi-desert regions. In 1857 fifty Germans (mostly mechanics) organized in San Francisco the Los Angeles Vineyard Association and bought 1165 acres of land here which could be irrigated from the Santa Ana river; each member took possession of a 20 acre share only when gradual improvement had made everything ready for occupancy and the tracts had been distributed by lot, with bonuses or rebates to equalize them in value to the drawers. This ended the co-operative feature of the enterprise, which was never communistic except that its irrigating canal remained common property. The settlement was uninterruptedly successful, and was influential as a pioneer experiment. Anaheim was incorporated as a town in 1870; this incorporation was revoked in 1872; in 1878 the town was incorporated again; and in 1888 Anaheim received a city charter.

ANÁHUAC, a geographical district of Mexico, limited by the traditional and vaguely defined boundaries of an ancient Indian empire or confederation of that name previous to the Spanish conquest. The word is said to signify “country by the waters” in the old Aztec language; hence the theory that Anáhuac was located on the sea coast. One of the theories relating to the location of Anáhuac describes it as all the plateau region of Mexico, with an area equal to three-fourths of the republic, and extending between the eastern and western coast ranges from Rio Grande to the isthmus of Tehuantepec. A more exact description, however, limits it to the great plateau valley in which the city of Mexico is located, between 18° 40′ and 20° 30′ N. lat., about 200 m. long by 75 m. wide, with an average elevation of 7500 ft., and a mean temperature of 62°. The accepted meaning of the name fits this region as well as any on the sea coast, as the lakes of this valley formerly covered one-tenth of its area. The existence of the name in southern Utah, United States, and on the gulf coast of Mexico, has given rise to theories of other locations and wider bounds for the old Indian empire.

  1. Steph. Byz. (sub Τύρος) says that Arrian calls Anatha Τύρος.
  2. Texeira (1610) says that “Anna” lay on both banks of the river, and so Della Valle (i. 671).
  3. Ass. Deeds and Doc. nos. 23, 168, 228, 385. The characters used are DIŠTU, which may mean Ana-tu.