Page:EB1911 - Volume 02.djvu/69

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treasures. On the 22nd of July 1474 he drew up a will by which he divided the succession between his grandson René II. of Lorraine and his nephew Charles II., count of Maine. On hearing this, King Louis XI., who was the son of one of King René’s sisters, seeing that his expectations were thus completely frustrated, seized the duchy of Anjou. He did not keep it very long, but became reconciled to René in 1476 and restored it to him, on condition, probably, that René should bequeath it to him. However that may be, on the death of the latter (10th of July 1480) he again added Anjou to the royal domain.

Later, King Francis I. again gave the duchy as an appanage to his mother, Louise of Savoy, by letters patent of the 4th of February 1515. On her death, in September 1531, the duchy returned into the king’s possession. In 1552 it was given as an appanage by Henry II. to his son Henry of Valois, who, on becoming king in 1574, with the title of Henry III., conceded it to his brother Francis, duke of Alençon, at the treaty of Beaulieu near Loches (6th of May 1576). Francis died on the 10th of June 1584, and the vacant appanage definitively became part of the royal domain.

At first Anjou was included in the gouvernement (or military command) of Orléanais, but in the 17th century was made into a separate one. Saumur, however, and the Saumurois, for which King Henry IV. had in 1589 created an independent military governor-generalship in favour of Duplessis-Mornay, continued till the Revolution to form a separate gouvernement, which included, besides Anjou, portions of Poitou and Mirebalais. Attached to the généralité (administrative circumscription) of Tours, Anjou on the eve of the Revolution comprised five élections (judicial districts):—Angers, Beaugé, Saumur, Château-Gontier, Montreuil-Bellay and part of the élections of La Flèche and Richelieu. Financially it formed part of the so-called pays de grande gabelle (see Gabelle), and comprised sixteen special tribunals, or greniers à sel (salt warehouses):—Angers, Beaugé, Beaufort, Bourgueil, Candé, Château-Gontier, Cholet, Craon, La Flèche, Saint-Florent-le-Vieil, Ingrandes, Le Lude, Pouancé, Saint-Remy-la-Varenne, Richelieu, Saumur. From the point of view of purely judicial administration, Anjou was subject to the parlement of Paris; Angers was the seat of a presidial court, of which the jurisdiction comprised the sénéchaussées of Angers, Saumur, Beaugé, Beaufort and the duchy of Richelieu; there were besides presidial courts at Château-Gontier and La Flèche. When the Constituent Assembly, on the 26th of February 1790, decreed the division of France into departments, Anjou and the Saumurois, with the exception of certain territories, formed the department of Maine-et-Loire, as at present constituted.

Authorities.—(1) Principal Sources: The history of Anjou may be told partly with the aid of the chroniclers of the neighbouring provinces, especially those of Normandy (William of Poitiers, William of Jumièges, Ordericus Vitalis) and of Maine (especially Actus pontificum Cenomannis in urbe degentium). For the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries especially, there are some important texts dealing entirely with Anjou. The most important is the chronicle called Gesta consulum Andegavorum, of which only a poor edition exists (Chroniques des comtes d’Anjou, published by Marchegay and Salmon, with an introduction by E. Mabille, Paris, 1856–1871, collection of the Société de l’histoire de France). See also with reference to this text Louis Halphen, Étude sur les chroniques des comtes d’Anjou et des seigneurs d’Amboise (Paris, 1906). The above may be supplemented by some valuable annals published by Louis Halphen, Recueil d’annales angevines et vendômoises (Paris, 1903), (in the series Collection de textes pour servir à l’étude et à l’enseignement de l’histoire). For further details see Auguste Molinier, Les Sources de l’histoire de France (Paris, 1902), ii. 1276–1310, and the book of Louis Halphen mentioned below.

(2) Works: The Art de vérifier les dates contains a history of Anjou which is very much out of date, but has not been treated elsewhere as a whole. The 11th century only has been treated in detail by Louis Halphen, in Le Comté d’Anjou au XIe siècle (Paris, 1906), which has a preface with bibliography and an introduction dealing with the history of Anjou in the 10th century. For the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, a good summary will be found in Kate Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings (2 vols., London, 1887). On René of Anjou, there is a book by A. Lecoy de la Marche, Le Roi René (2 vols., Paris, 1875). Lastly, the work of Célestin Port, Dictionnaire historique, géographique et biographique de Maine-et-Loire (3 vols., Paris and Angers, 1874–1878), and its small volume of Préliminaires (including a summary of the history of Anjou), contain, in addition to the biographies of the chief counts of Anjou, a mass of information concerning everything connected with Angevin history.  (L. H.*) 

ANKERITE, a member of the mineral group of rhombohedral carbonates. In composition it is closely related to dolomite, but differs from this in having magnesia replaced by varying amounts of ferrous and manganous oxides, the general formula being Ca(Mg, Fe, Mn)(CO3)2. Normal ankerite is Ca2MgFe(CO3)4. The crystallographic and physical characters resemble those of dolomite and chalybite. The angle between the perfect rhombohedral cleavages is 73° 48′, the hardness 3½ to 4, and the specific gravity 2.9 to 3.1; but these will vary slightly with the chemical composition. The colour is white, grey or reddish.

Ankerite occurs with chalybite in deposits of iron-ore. It is one of the minerals of the dolomite-chalybite series, to which the terms brown-spar, pearl-spar and bitter-spar are loosely applied. It was first recognized as a distinct species by W. von Haidinger in 1825, and named by him after M. J. Anker of Styria.  (L. J. S.) 

ANKLAM, or Anclam, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the Peene, 5 m. from its mouth in the Kleines Haff, and 53 m. N.W. of Stettin, by the railway to Stralsund. Pop. (1900) 14,602. The fortifications of Anklam were dismantled in 1762 and have not since been restored, although the old walls are still standing; formerly, however, it was a town of considerable military importance, which suffered severely during the Thirty Years’ and the Seven Years’ Wars; and this fact, together with the repeated ravages of fire and of the plague, has made its history more eventful than is usually the case with towns of the same size. It does not possess any remarkable buildings, although it contains several, private as well as public, that are of a quaint and picturesque style of architecture. The church of St Mary (12th century) has a modern tower, 335 ft. high. The industries consist of iron-foundries and factories for sugar and soap; and there is a military school. The Peene is navigable up to the town, which has a considerable trade in its own manufactures, as well as in the produce of the surrounding country, while some shipbuilding is carried on in wharves on the river.

Anklam, formerly Tanglim, was originally a Slav fortress; it obtained civic rights in 1244 and joined the Hanseatic league. In 1648 it passed to Sweden, but in 1676 was retaken by Frederick William I. of Brandenburg, and after being plundered by the Russians in 1713 was ceded to Prussia by the peace of Stockholm in 1720.

ANKLE, or Ancle (a word common, in various forms, to Teutonic languages, probably connected in origin with the Lat. angulus, or Gr. ἀγκύλος, bent), the joint which connects the foot with the leg (see Joints).

ANKOBER, a town in, and at one time capital of, the kingdom of Shoa, Abyssinia, 90 m. N.E. of Adis Ababa, in 9° 34′ N., 39° 54′ E., on a mountain about 8500 ft. above the sea. Ankober was made (c. 1890) by Menelek II. the place of detention of political prisoners. Pop. about 2000.

ANKYLOSIS, or Anchylosis (from Gr. ἀγκύλος, bent, crooked), a stiffness of a joint, the result of injury or disease. The rigidity may be complete or partial and may be due to inflammation of the tendinous or muscular structures outside the joint or of the tissues of the joint itself. When the structures outside the joint are affected, the term “false” ankylosis has been used in contradistinction to “true” ankylosis, in which the disease is within the joint. When inflammation has caused the joint-ends of the bones to be fused together the ankylosis is termed osseous or complete. Excision of a completely ankylosed shoulder or elbow may restore free mobility and usefulness to the limb. “Ankylosis” is also used as an anatomical term, bones being said to ankylose (or anchylose) when, from being originally distinct, they coalesce, or become so joined together that no motion can take place between them.

ANKYLOSTOMIASIS, or Anchylostomiasis (also called helminthiasis, “miners’ anaemia,” and in Germany Wurmkrankheit),