between two and six years old. The incubation period is from ten to fifteen days; there are practically no prodromal symptoms, the only indication being a slight amount of fever for some twenty-four hours, after which the eruption makes its appearance. A number of raised red papules appear on the trunk, either on the back or chest; in from twelve to twenty-four hours these develop into tense vesicles filled with a clear fluid, which in another thirty-six hours or so becomes opalescent. During the fourth day these vesicles dry and shrivel up, and the scabs fall off, leaving as a rule no scar. Fresh spots appear during the first three days, so that at the end of that time they can be seen in all stages of growth and decay. The eruption is most marked on the chest, but it also occurs on the face and limbs, and on the mucous membrane of the mouth and palate. The temperature begins to fall after the appearance of the rash, but a certain slight amount may persist after the disappearance of all symptoms. It rarely rises above 102 F. The disease runs a very favourable course in the majority of cases, and after effects are rare. One attack does not confer immunity, and in numerous cases one individual has had three attacks. The diet should be light, and the patient should be prevented from scratching the spots, which would lead to ulceration and scarring. After the first few days there is no necessity to confine the patient to bed. In the large majority of cases, it is easy to distinguish the disease from smallpox, but in certain patients it is very difficult. The chief points in the differential diagnosis are as follows. (1) In chicken-pox the rash is distributed chiefly on the trunk, and less on the limbs. (2) Some of the vesicles are oval, whereas in smallpox they are always hemispherical. They are also more superficial, and have not at the outset the hard shotty feeling of the more virulent disease. (3) The vesicles attain their full growth within twelve to twenty-four hours. (4) The pustules are usually monocular. (5) There is no prodromal period.
CHICLANA, or Chiclana de la Frontera, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Cadiz, 12 m. by rail S.E. of Cadiz. Pop. (1900) 10,868. Chiclana occupies a fertile valley, watered by the river Lirio, and sheltered, on the north and south, by low hills covered with vines and plantations. It faces the gulf of Cadiz, 3 m. W., and, from its mild climate and pleasant surroundings, is the favourite summer residence of the richer Cadiz merchants; its hot mineral springs also attract many visitors. In the neighbourhood are the Roman ruins of Chiclana la Vieja, the town of Medina Sidonia (q.v.), and, about 5 m. S., the battlefield of Barrosa, where the British under Sir Thomas Graham (Lord Lynedoch) defeated the French under Marshal Victor, on the 5th of March 1811.
CHICOPEE, a city of Hampden county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., situated on the E. side of the Connecticut river, at the mouth of the Chicopee river, immediately N. of Springfield. Pop. (1890) 14,050; (1900) 19,167, of whom 8139 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 25,401. Chicopee is served by the Boston & Maine railway. The city, which has an area of about 25 sq. m., contains five villages. Chicopee Center, Chicopee Falls, Willimansett, Fairview and Aldenville. Chicopee Falls lies on both sides of the Chicopee river, which falls some 70 ft. in less than 3 m. and furnishes valuable power for manufactories. The most important products are cotton goods (two large factories having, together, about 200,000 spindles), fire-arms (especially the Stevens rifles), tools, rubber and elastic goods, sporting goods, swords, automobiles and agricultural implements. Here, too, is a bronze statuary foundry, in which some of the finest monuments, bronze doors, &c., in the country have been cast, including the doors of the Capitol at Washington. The bronze casting industry here was founded by Nathan Peabody Ames (1803–1847), who was first a sword-maker and in 1836 began the manufacture of cannon and church bells. The total value of the city’s factory product in 1905 was $7,715,653, an increase of 43.2% in five years. There is a public library. The municipality owns and operates the water-works system and the electric lighting plant. Chicopee was settled about 1638, was set off from Springfield as an independent township in 1848, and was chartered as a city in 1890. Chicopee Falls was the home of Edward Bellamy. The name of the city is an Indian word meaning “cedar-tree” or “birch-bark place.”
CHICORY. The chicory or succory plant, Cichorium Intybus (natural order, Compositae), in its wild state is a native of Great Britain, occurring most frequently in dry chalky soils, and by road-sides. It has a long fleshy tap-root, a rigid branching hairy stem rising to a height of 2 or 3 ft.—the leaves around the base being lobed and toothed, not unlike those of the dandelion. The flower heads are of a bright blue colour, few in number, and measure nearly an inch and a half across. Chicory is cultivated much more extensively on the continent of Europe—in Holland, Belgium, France and Germany—than in Great Britain; and as a cultivated plant it has three distinct applications. Its roots roasted and ground are used as a substitute for, adulterant of, or addition to coffee; both roots and leaves are employed as salads; and the plant is grown as a fodder or herbage crop which is greedily consumed by cattle. In Great Britain it is chiefly in its first capacity, in connexion with coffee, that chicory is employed. A large proportion of the chicory root used for this purpose is obtained from Belgium and other neighbouring continental countries; but a considerable quantity is cultivated in England, chiefly in Yorkshire. For the preparation of chicory the older stout white roots are selected, and after washing they are sliced up into small pieces and kiln-dried. In this condition the material is sold to the chicory roaster, by whom it is roasted till it assumes a deep brown colour; afterwards when ground it is in external characteristics very like coffee, but is destitute of its pleasing aromatic odour. Neither does the roasted chicory possess any trace of the alkaloid caffeine which gives their peculiar virtues to coffee and tea. The fact, however, that for over a hundred years it has been successfully used as a substitute for or recognized addition to coffee, while in the meantime innumerable other substances have been tried for the same purpose and abandoned, indicates that it is agreeable and harmless. It gives the coffee additional colour, bitterness and body. It is at least in very extensive and general use; and in Belgium especially its infusion is largely drunk as an independent beverage.
The blanched leaves are much esteemed by the French as a winter salad known by the name of Barbe de capucin. When intended for winter use, chicory is sown in May or June, commonly in drills, and the plants are thinned out to 4 in. apart. If at first the leaves grow very strong, they are cut off, perhaps in the middle of August, about an inch from the ground, so as to promote the production of new leaves, and check the formation of flower-stems. About the beginning of October the plants are raised from the border, and all the large leaves cut off; the roots are also shortened, and they are then planted pretty closely together in boxes filled with rich light mould, and watered when needful. When frost comes on, the boxes are protected by any kind of litter and haulm. As the salad is wanted, they are removed into some place having a moderately increased temperature, and where there is no light. Each box affords two crops of blanched leaves, and these are reckoned fit for cutting when about 6 in. long. Another mode of obtaining the young leaves of this plant in winter is to sow seeds in a bed of light rich mould, or in boxes in a heat of from 55° to 60°, giving a gentle watering as required. The leaves will be fit to be cut in a fortnight after sowing, and the plants will afford a second crop.
In Belgium a variety of chicory called Witloef is much preferred as a salad to the French Barbe de capucin. The seeds are sown and the plants thinned out like those of the ordinary sort. They are eventually planted in light soil, in succession, from the end of October to February, at the bottom of trenches a foot or more in depth, and covered over with from 2 to 3 ft. of hot stable manure. In a month or six weeks, according to the heat applied, the heads are fit for use and should be cut before they reach the manure. The plants might easily be forced in frames on a mild hot-bed, or in a mushroom-house, in the same way as sea-kale. In Belgium the fresh roots are boiled and eaten with butter, and throughout the Continent the roots are stored for use as salads during winter.
See also Endive (Cichorium endivia).