signed for the marriage of Henry of Orleans with Catherine de’ Medici; but it was not till October 1533 that Clement met Francis at Marseilles, the wedding being celebrated on the 27th. Before, however, the new political alliance, thus cemented, could take effect, Clement died, on the 25th of September 1534.
See E. Casanova, Lettere di Carlo V. a Clemente VII. (Florence, 1893); Hugo Lämmer, Monumenta Vaticana, &c. (Freiburg, 1861); P. Balan, Monumenta saeculi XVI. hist. illustr. (Innsbruck, 1885); ib. Mon. Reform. Luther (Regensburg, 1884); Stefan Ehses, Röm. Dokum. z. Gesch. der Ehescheidung Heinrichs VIII. (Paderborn, 1893); Calendar of State Papers (London, 1869, &c.); J. J. I. von Döllinger, Beiträge zur politischen, kirchlichen und Kulturgeschichte (3 vols., Vienna, 1882); F. Guicciardini, Istoria d’Italia; L. von Ranke, Die römischen Päpste in den letzten vier Jahrhunderten, and Deutsche Gesch. im Zeitalter der Reformation; W. Hellwig, Die politischen Beziehungen Clement’s VII. zu Karl V., 1526 (Leipzig, 1889); H. Baumgarten, Gesch. Karls V. (Stuttgart, 1888); F. Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, vol. viii. p. 414 (2nd ed., 1874); P. Balan, Clemente VII. e l’Italia de’ suoi tempi (Milan, 1887); E. Armstrong, Charles the Fifth (2 vols., London, 1902); M. Creighton, Hist. of the Papacy during the Period of the Reformation (London, 1882); and H. M. Vaughan, The Medici Popes (1908). Further references will be found in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopädie, s. Clemens VII. See also Cambridge Modern History, vol. ii. chap. i. and bibliography.
(W. A. P.)
Clement VIII. (Aegidius Muñoz), antipope from 1425 to the 26th of July 1429, was a canon at Barcelona until elected at Peñiscola by three cardinals whom the stubborn antipope Benedict XIII. had named on his death-bed. Clement was immediately recognized by Alphonso V. of Aragon, who was hostile to Pope Martin V. on account of the latter’s opposition to his claims to the kingdom of Naples, but abdicated as soon as an agreement was reached between Alphonso and Martin through the exertions of Cardinal Pierre de Foix, an able diplomat and relation of the king’s. Clement spent his last years as bishop of Majorca, and died on the 28th of December 1446.
See. L. Pastor, History of the Popes, vol. i. trans, by F. I. Antrobus (London, 1899); M. Creighton, History of the Papacy, vol. ii. (London, 1899); and consult bibliography on Martin V.
Clement VIII. (Ippolito Aldobrandini), pope from 1592 to 1605, was born at Fano, in 1535. He became a jurist and filled several important offices. In 1585 he was made a cardinal, and subsequently discharged a delicate mission to Poland with skill. His moderation and experience commended him to his fellow cardinals, and on the 30th of January 1592 he was elected pope, to succeed Innocent IX. While not hostile to Philip II., Clement desired to emancipate the papacy from undue Spanish influence, and to that end cultivated closer relations with France. In 1595 he granted absolution to Henry IV., and so removed the last objection to the acknowledgment of his legitimacy. The peace of Vervins (1598), which marked the end of Philip’s opposition to Henry, was mainly the work of the pope. Clement also entertained hopes of recovering England. He corresponded with James I. and with his queen, Anne of Denmark, a convert to Catholicism. But James was only half in earnest, and, besides, dared not risk a breach with his subjects. Upon the failure of the line of Este, Clement claimed the reversion of Ferrara and reincorporated it into the States of the Church (1598). He remonstrated against the exclusion of the Jesuits from France, and obtained their readmission. But in their doctrinal controversy with the Dominicans (see Molina, Luis) he refrained from a decision, being unwilling to offend either party. Under Clement the publication of the revised edition of the Vulgate, begun by Sixtus V., was finished; the Breviary, Missal and Pontifical received certain corrections; the Index was expanded; the Vatican library enlarged; and the Collegium Clementinum founded. Clement was an unblushing nepotist; three of his nephews he made cardinals, and to one of them gradually surrendered the control of affairs. But on the other hand among those whom he promoted to the cardinalate were such men as Baronius, Bellarmine and Toledo. During this pontificate occurred the burning of Giordano Bruno for heresy; and the tragedy of the Cenci (see the respective articles). Clement died on the 5th of March 1605, and was succeeded by Leo XI.
See the contemporary life by Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff. Rom. (Rome, 1601–1602); Francolini, Ippolito Aldobrandini, che fu Clemente VIII. (Perugia, 1867); Ranke’s excellent sketch, Popes (Eng. trans. Austin), ii. 234 seq.; v. Reumont, Gesch. der Stadt Rom, iii. 2, 599 seq.; Brosch, Gesch. des Kirchenstaates (1880), i. 301 seq.
(T. F. C.)
Clement IX. (Giulio Rospigliosi) was born in 1600, became successively auditor of the Rota, archbishop of Tarsus in partibus, and cardinal, and was elected pope on the 20th of June 1667. He effected a temporary adjustment of the Jansenist controversy; was instrumental in concluding the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668); healed a long-standing breach between the Holy See and Portugal; aided Venice against the Turks, and laboured unceasingly for the relief of Crete, the fall of which hastened his death on the 9th of October 1669.
See Oldoin, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff. Rom.; Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff. Rom. (Venice, 1687–1688), iv. 621 seq. (both contemporary); Ranke, Popes (Eng. trans. Austin), iii. 59 seq.; and v. Reumont, Gesch. der Stadt Rom, iii. 2, 634 seq.
(T. F. C.)
Clement X. (Emilio Altieri) was born in Rome, on the 13th of July 1590. Before becoming pope, on the 29th of April 1670 he had been auditor in Poland, governor of Ancona, and nuncio in Naples. His advanced age induced him to resign the control of affairs to his adopted nephew, Cardinal Paluzzi, who embroiled the papacy in disputes with the resident ambassadors, and incurred the enmity of Louis XIV., thus provoking the long controversy over the regalia (see Innocent XI.). Clement died on the 22nd of July 1676.
See Guarnacci, Vitae et res gestae Pontiff. Rom. (Rome, 1751), (contin. of Ciaconius), i. 1 seq.; Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff. Rom. (Venice, 1687–1688), iv. 655 seq.; and Ranke, Popes (Eng. trans. Austin), iii. 172 seq.
(T. F. C.)
Clement XI (Giovanni Francesco Albani), pope from 1700 to 1721, was born in Urbino, on the 22nd of July 1649, received an extraordinary education in letters, theology and law, filled various important offices in the Curia, and finally, on the 23rd of November 1700, succeeded Innocent XII. as pope. His private life and his administration were blameless, but it was his misfortune to reign in troublous times. In the war of the Spanish Succession he would willingly have remained neutral, but found himself between two fires, forced first to recognize Philip V., then driven by the emperor to recognize the Archduke Charles. In the peace of Utrecht he was ignored; Sardinia and Sicily, Parma and Piacenza, were disposed of without regard to papal claims. When he quarrelled with the duke of Savoy, and revoked his investiture rights in Sicily (1715), his interdict was treated with contempt. The prestige of the papacy had hardly been lower within two centuries. About 1702 the Jansenist controversy broke out afresh. Clement reaffirmed the infallibility of the pope, in matters of fact (1705), and, in 1713, issued the bull Unigenitus, condemning 101 Jansenistic propositions extracted from the Moral Reflections of Pasquier Quesnel. The rejection of this bull by certain bishops led to a new party division and a further prolonging of the controversy (see Jansenism and Quesnel, Pasquier). Clement also forbade the practice of the Jesuit missionaries in China of “accommodating” their teachings to pagan notions or customs, in order to win converts. Clement was a polished writer, and a generous patron of art and letters. He died on the 19th of March 1721.
For contemporary lives see Elci, The Present State of the Court of Rome, trans. from the Ital. (London, 1706); Polidoro, De Vita et Reb. Gest. Clem. XI. (Urbino, 1727); Reboulet, Hist. de Clem. XI. Pape (Avignon, 1752); Guarnacci, Vitae et res gest. Pontiff. Rom. (Rome, 1751); Sandini, Vitae Pontiff Rom. (Padua, 1739); Buder, Leben u. Thaten Clementis XI. (Frankfort, 1720–1721). See also Clementis XI. Opera Omnia (Frankfort, 1729); the detailed “Studii sul pontificato di Clem. XI.,” by Pometti in the Archivio della R. Soc. romana di storia patria, vols. 21, 22, 23 (1898–1900), and the extended bibliography in Hergenröther, Allg. Kirchengesch. (1880), iii. 506.
(T. F. C.)
Clement XII. (Lorenzo Corsini), pope from 1730 to 1740, succeeded Benedict XIII. on the 12th of July 1730, at the age of seventy-eight. The rascally Cardinal Coscia, who had deluded Benedict, was at once brought to justice and forced to disgorge his dishonest gains. Politically the papacy had sunk to the level of pitiful helplessness, unable to resist the aggressions of the Powers, who ignored or coerced it at will. Yet Clement