Page:EB1911 - Volume 07.djvu/753

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Daguerre and the heir of Niepce were to receive annuities of 6000 and 4000 francs respectively, on the condition that their process should be made known to the Academy. The bill having been approved at the meetings of the two chambers on the 9th of July and on the 2nd of August, Daguerre’s process, together with his system of transparent and opaque painting, was published by the government, and soon became generally known (see Photography).

Daguerre’s Historique et description des procédés du daguerréotype et du diorama (Paris, 1839) passed through several editions, and was translated into English. Besides this he wrote an octavo work, entitled Nouveau moyen de préparer la couche sensible des plaques destinées à recevoir les images photographiques (Paris, 1844).

DAGUPAN, a town and the most important commercial centre of the province of Pangasinán, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on a branch of the Agno river near its entrance into the Gulf of Lingayen, 120 m. by rail N.N.W. of Manila. Pop. (1903), 20,357. It is served by the Manila & Dagupan railway. Dagupan has a healthy climate. It is the chief point of exportation for a very rich province, which produces sugar, indigo, Indian corn, copra, and especially rice. There are several rice mills here. Salt is an important export, being manufactured in salt water swamps and marshes throughout the province of Pangasinán (whose name, from asin, “salt,” means “the place where salt is produced”). In these marshes grows the nipa palm, from which a liquor is distilled—there are a number of small distilleries here. Dagupan has a small shipyard in which sailing vessels and steam launches are constructed. The principal language is Pangasinán.

DAHABEAH (also spelt dahabīya, dahabīyeh, dahabeeyah, &c.), an Arabic word (variously derived from dahab, gold, and dahab, one of the forms of the verb to go) for a native passenger boat used on the Nile. The typical form is that of a barge-like house-boat provided with sails, resembling the painted galleys represented on the tombs of the Pharaohs. Similar state barges were used by the Mahommedan rulers of Egypt, and from the circumstance that these vessels were ornamented with gilding is attributed the usual derivation of the name from gold. Before the introduction of steamers dahabeahs were generally used by travellers ascending the Nile, and they are still the favourite means of travelling for the leisured and wealthy classes. The modern dahabeah is often made of iron, draws about 2 ft. of water, and is provided with one very large and one small sail. According to size it provides accommodation for from two to a dozen passengers. Steam dahabeahs are also built to meet the requirements of tourists.

DAHL, HANS (1849–  ), Norwegian painter, was born at Hardanger. After being in the Swedish army he studied art at Karlsruhe and at Düsseldorf, being a notable painter of landscape and genre. His work has considerable humour, but his colouring is hard and rather crude. In 1889 he settled in Berlin. His pictures are very popular in Norway.

DAHL, JOHANN CHRISTIAN (1778–1857), Norwegian landscape painter, was born in Bergen. He formed his style without much tuition, remaining at Bergen till he was twenty-four, when he left for the better field of Copenhagen, and ultimately settled in Dresden in 1818. He is usually included in the German school, although he was thus close on forty years of age when he finally took up his abode in Dresden, where he was quickly received into the Academy and became professor. German landscape-painting was not greatly advanced at that time, and Dahl contributed to improve it. He continued to reside in Dresden, though he travelled into Tirol and in Italy, painting many pictures, one of his best being that of the “Outbreak of Vesuvius, 1820.” He was fond of extraordinary effects, as seen in his “Winter at Munich,” and his “Dresden by Moonlight;” also the “Haven of Copenhagen,” and the “Schloss of Friedrichsburg,” under the same condition. At Dresden may be seen many of his works, notably a large picture called “Norway,” and a “Storm at Sea.” He was received into several academic bodies, and had the orders of Wasa and St Olaf sent him by the king of Norway and Sweden.

DAHL, MICHAEL (1656–1743), Swedish portrait painter, was born at Stockholm. He received his first professional education from Ernst Klocke, who had a respectable position in that northern town, which, however, Dahl left in his twenty-second year. His first destination was England, where he did not long remain, but crossed over to Paris, and made his way at last to Rome, there taking up his abode for a considerable time, painting the portraits of Queen Christina and other celebrities. In 1688 he returned to England, and became for some years a dangerous rival to Kneller. He died in London. His portraits still exist in many houses, but his name is not always preserved with them. Nagler (Künstler-Lexicon) says those at Hampton Court and at Petworth contest the palm with those of the better known and vastly more employed painter.

DAHL (or DALE), VLADIMIR IVANOVICH (1802–1872), Russian author and philologist, was born of Scandinavian parentage in 1802, and received his education at the naval cadets’ institution at St Petersburg. He joined the Black Sea fleet in 1819; but at a later date he entered the military service, and was thus engaged in the Polish campaign of 1831, and in the expedition against Khiva. He was afterwards appointed to a medical post in one of the government hospitals at St Petersburg, and was ultimately transferred to a situation in the civil service. The latter years of his life were spent at Moscow, and he died there on November 3 (October 22), 1872. Under the name of Kossack Lugansky he obtained considerable fame by his stories of Russian life:—The Dream and the Waking, A Story of Misery, Happiness, and Truth, The Door-Keeper (Dvernik), The Officer’s Valet (Denshchik). His greatest work, however, was a Dictionary of the Living Russian Tongue (Tolkovyi Slovar Zhivago Velikorusskago Yasika), which appeared in four volumes between 1861 and 1866, and is of the most essential service to the student of the popular literature and folk-lore of Russia. It was based on the results of his own investigations throughout the various provinces of Russia,—investigations which had furnished him with no fewer than 4000 popular tales and upwards of 30,000 proverbs. Among his other publications may be mentioned Bemerkungen zu Zimmermann’s Entwurf des Kriegstheaters Russlands gegen Khiwa, published in German at Orenburg, and a Handbook of Botany (Moscow, 1849).

A collected edition of his works appeared at St Petersburg in 8 volumes, 1860–1861.

DAHLBERG (Dahlbergh), ERIK JOHANSEN, COUNT (1625–1703), Swedish soldier and engineer, was born at Stockholm. His early studies took the direction of the science of fortification, and as an engineer officer he saw service in the latter years of the Thirty Years’ War, and in Poland. As adjutant-general and engineer adviser to Charles X. (Gustavus), he had a great share in the famous crossing of the frozen Belts, and at the sieges of Copenhagen and Kronborg he directed the engineers. In spite of these distinguished services, Dahlberg remained an obscure lieutenant-colonel for many years. His patriotism, however, proved superior to the tempting offers Charles II. of England made to induce him to enter the British service, though, in that age of professional soldiering, there was nothing in the offer that a man of honour could not accept. At last his talents were recognized, and in 1676 he became director-general of fortifications. In the wars of the next twenty-five years Dahlberg again rendered distinguished service, alike in attack (as at Helsingborg in 1677, and Dünamünde in 1700) and defence (as in the two sieges of Riga in 1700): and his work in repairing the fortresses of his own country, not less important, earned for him the title of the “Vauban of Sweden.” He was also the founder of the Swedish engineer corps. He retired as field-marshal in 1702, and died the following year.

Erik Dahlberg was responsible for the fine collection of drawings called Suecia antiqua et hodierna (Stockholm, 1660–1716; 2nd edition, 1856; 3rd edition, 1864–1865), and assisted Pufendorf in his Histoire de Charles X Gustave. He wrote a memoir of his life (to be found in Svenska Bibliotek, 1757) and an account of the campaigns of Charles X. (ed. Lundblad, Stockholm, 1823).

DAHLGREN, JOHN ADOLF (1809–1870), admiral in the U.S. navy, was the son of the Swedish consul at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,