churches it is confined to the patriarchs and metropolitans; in the Russian, Ruthenian and Bulgarian churches it is worn by all bishops. Unlike the practice of the Latin church, it is not worn under, but has replaced the phelonion (chasuble).
A silk dalmatic forms one (the undermost) of the English coronation robes. Its use would seem to have been borrowed, not from the robes of the Eastern emperors, but from the church, and to symbolize with the other robes the quasi-sacerdotal character of the kingship (see Coronation). The magnificent so-called dalmatic of Charlemagne, preserved at Rome (see Embroidery), is really a Greek sakkos.
DALMELLINGTON, a village of Ayrshire, Scotland, 15 m. S.E. of Ayr by a branch line, of which it is the terminus, of the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 1448. The district is rich in minerals—coal, ironstone, sandstone and limestone. Though the place is of great antiquity, the Roman road running near it, few remains of any interest exist. It was, however, a centre of activity in the Covenanting times.
DALOU, JULES (1838–1902), French sculptor, was the pupil of Carpeaux and Duret, and combined the vivacity and richness of the one with the academic purity and scholarship of the other. He is one of the most brilliant virtuosos of the French school, admirable alike in taste, execution and arrangement. He first exhibited at the Salon in 1867, but when in 1871 the troubles of the Commune broke out in Paris, he took refuge in England, where he rapidly made a name through his appointment at South Kensington. Here he laid the foundation of that great improvement which resulted in the development of the modern British school of sculpture, and at the same time executed a remarkable series of terra-cotta statuettes and groups, such as “A French Peasant Woman” (of which a bronze version under the title of “Maternity” is erected outside the Royal Exchange), the group of two Boulogne women called “The Reader” and “A Woman of Boulogne telling her Beads.” He returned to France in 1879 and produced a number of masterpieces. His great relief of “Mirabeau replying to M. de Dreux-Brézé,” exhibited in 1883 and now at the Palais Bourbon, and the highly decorative panel, “Triumph of the Republic,” were followed in 1885 by “The Procession of Silenus.” For the city of Paris he executed his most elaborate and splendid achievement, the vast monument, “The Triumph of the Republic,” erected, after twenty years’ work, in the Place de la Nation, showing a symbolical figure of the Republic, aloft on her car, drawn by lions led by Liberty, attended by Labour and Justice, and followed by Peace. It is somewhat in the taste of the Louis XIV. period, ornate, but exquisite in every detail. Within a few days there was also inaugurated his great “Monument to Alphand” (1899), which almost equalled in the success achieved the monument to Delacroix in the Luxembourg Gardens. Dalou, who gained the Grand Prix of the International exhibition of 1889, and was an officer of the Legion of Honour, was one of the founders of the New Salon (Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts), and was the first president of the sculpture section. In portraiture, whether statues or busts, his work is not less remarkable.
DALRADIAN, in geology, a series of metamorphic rocks, typically developed in the high ground which lies E. and S. of the Great Glen of Scotland. This was the old Celtic region of Dalradia, and in 1891 Sir A. Geikie proposed the name Dalradian as a convenient provisional designation for the complicated set of rocks to which it is difficult to assign a definite position in the stratigraphical sequence (Q.J.G.S. 47, p. 75). In Sir A. Geikie’s words, “they consist in large proportion of altered sedimentary strata, now found in the form of mica-schist, graphite-schist, andalusite-schist, phyllite, schistose grit, greywacke and conglomerate, quartzite, limestone and other rocks, together with epidiorites, chlorite-schists, hornblende schists and other allied varieties, which probably mark sills, lava-sheets or beds of tuff, intercalated among the sediments. The total thickness of this assemblage of rocks must be many thousand feet.” The Dalradian series includes the “Eastern or Younger schists” of eastern Sutherland, Ross-shire and Inverness-shire—the Moine gneiss, &c.—as well as the metamorphosed sedimentary and eruptive rocks of the central, eastern and south-western Highlands. The series has been traced into the north-western counties of Ireland. The whole of the Dalradian complex has suffered intense crushing and thrusting.
See Pre-Cambrian; also J. B. Hill, Q.J.G.S., 1899, 55, and G. Barrow, loc. cit., 1901, 57, and the Annual Reports and Summaries of Progress of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom from 1893 onwards.
DALRIADA, the name of two ancient Gaelic kingdoms, one in Ireland and the other in Scotland. The name means the home of the descendants of Riada. Irish Dalriada was the district which now forms the northern part of county Antrim, and from which about A.D. 500 some emigrants crossed over to Scotland, and founded in Argyllshire the Scottish kingdom of Dalriada. For a time Scottish Dalriada appears to have been dependent upon Irish Dalriada, but about 575 King Aidan secured its independence. One of Aidan’s successors, Kenneth, became king of the Picts about 843, and gradually the name Dalriada both in Ireland and Scotland fell into disuse.
DALRY (Gaelic, “the field of the king”), a mining and manufacturing town of Ayrshire, Scotland, on the Garnock, 231 m. S.W. of Glasgow, by the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 5316. The public buildings include the library and reading-room, the assembly rooms, Davidshill hospital, Temperance hall and night asylum. There is a public park. The industries consist of woollen factories, worsted spinning, box-, cabinet-, coke- and brick-making, machine-knitting, currying and the manufacture of aerated waters. Coal and iron are found, but mining is not extensively pursued. In the vicinity are the iron works of Blair and Glengarnock, and a curious stalactite cave, known as Elf House, 30 ft. high and about 200 ft. long, offering some resemblance to a pointed aisle. Rye Water flows into the Garnock close to the town. Captain Thomas Crawford of Jordanhill (1530–1603), the captor of Dumbarton Castle, spent the closing years of his life at Dalry, where a considerable estate had been granted to him.
DALTON, JOHN (1766–1844), English chemist and physicist, was born about the 6th of September 1766 at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. His father, Joseph Dalton, was a weaver in poor circumstances, who, with his wife (Deborah Greenup), belonged to the Society of Friends; they had three children—Jonathan, John and Mary. John received his early education from his father and from John Fletcher, teacher of the Quakers’ school at Eaglesfield, on whose retirement in 1778 he himself started teaching. This youthful venture was not successful, the amount he received in fees being only about five shillings a week, and after two years he took to farm work. But he had received some instruction in mathematics from a distant relative, Elihu Robinson, and in 1781 he left his native village to become assistant to his cousin George Bewley who kept a school at Kendal. There he passed the next twelve years, becoming in 1785, through the retirement of his cousin, joint manager of the school with his elder brother Jonathan. About 1790 he seems to have thought of taking up law or medicine, but his projects met with no encouragement from his relatives and he remained at Kendal till, in the spring of 1793, he moved to Manchester, where he spent the rest of his life. Mainly through John Gough (1757–1825), a blind philosopher to whose aid he owed much of his scientific knowledge, he was appointed teacher of mathematics and natural philosophy at the New College in Moseley Street (in 1889 transferred to Manchester College, Oxford), and that position he retained until the removal of the college to York in 1799, when he became a “public and private teacher of mathematics and chemistry.”
During his residence in Kendal, Dalton had contributed solutions of problems and questions on various subjects to the Gentlemen’s and Ladies’ Diaries, and in 1787 he began to keep a meteorological diary in which during the succeeding fifty-seven