Page:EB1911 - Volume 13.djvu/948

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923
HUNGARY

prolongation of the charter of the joint bank, and certain concessions to Magyar demands in the matter of the army. It was soon clear, however, that in this Kossuth would not carry his party with him. A trial of strength took place between him and Mr de Justh, the champion of the extreme demands in the matter of Hungarian financial and economic autonomy; on the 7th of November rival banquets were held, one at Mako, ]usth's constituency, over which he presided, one at Budapest with Kossuth in the chair; the attendance at each foreshadowed the outcome of the general meeting of the party held at Budapest on the 11th, when Kossuth found himself in a minority of 46. The Independence party was now spht into two groups: the “ Independence and 1848 party, ” and the “ Independence, 1848 and Kossuth party ”

On the 12th Mr de Iusth resigned the presidency of the Lower House and sought re-election, so as to test the relative strength of parties. He was defeated by a combination of the Kossuthists, Andrassy Liberals and Clerical People's party, the 30 Croatian deputies, whose vote might have turned the election, abstaining on Dr Wekerle promising them to deliver Croatia from the oppressive rule of the ban, Baron Rauch. A majority was thus secured for the Kossuthist programme of compromise, but a majority so obviously precarious that the king-emperor, influenced also-it was rumoured-by the views of the heir apparent, in an interview with Count Andrassy and Mr Kossuth on the 15th, refused to make any concessions to the Magyar national demands. Hereupon Kossuth publicly declared (Nov. 22) to a deputation of his constituents from Czegled that he himself was 1n favour of an independent bank, but that the king opposed it, and that in the event of no concessions being made he would join the opposition.


On the 28th the Hungarian parliament adjourned sine die, pending the settlement of the crisis, without having voted the estimates for 1910, and without there being any prospect of a meeting of the delegations. On the two following days Dr Lukacs and Mr de justh had audiences of the king, but without result, and on the 51st Hungary once more entered on a period of extra-constitutional government.


The overwhelming victory of the government in June at the polls produced a lull in a crisis which at the beginning of the year had threatened the stability of the Dual Monarchy and the peace of Europe, but, in view of the methods by which the victory had been won, not the most sanguine could assert that the crisis was over passed. Its deep underlying causes can only be understood in the light of the whole of Hungarian history. It is easy to denounce the dominant Magyar classes as a selfish oligarchy, and to criticize the methods by which they have sought to maintain their power. But a nation that for a thousand years had maintained its individuality in the midst of hostile and rival races could not be expected to allow itself without a struggle to be sacrificed to the foice of mere numbers, and the less so if it were justified in its claim that it stood for a higher ideal of culture and civilization. The Magyars had certainly done much to justify their claim to a special measure of enlightenment. In their efforts to establish Hungarian independence on the firm basis of national efficiency they had succeeded in changing their country from one of very backward economic conditions into one which promised to be in a position to hold its own on equal terms with any in the world.

(W. A. P.)

Bibliography.—(a) Sources. The earliest important collection

of sources of Hungarian history was johann Georg Schrandtner's Scrrptores rerum Hungarrcarum (4th ed, Vienna, 1766-1768) The Codex drplomatrcns of Gyorgy Fejér (40 vols., Buda, 182Q-1844), though full of errors, remains an inexhaustible storehouse of materials. In 1849 Stephen Ladislaus Endlicher (1804-1849), better know n as a botanist than as a historian, published a collection of documents, Rerurn hung arr car urn rnonnrnenta Arpddrana. This was followed by Gustav Wenzel's Codex drplornatrcus arpadranus contrnuens (I2 vols, Pest, 1857) and A. Theiner's Vet. rnonumenta first. Hungarzarn sacrarn rllustrantra (2 vols, Rome, 1859, &c.). Later collections are Documents of the Angezfzn Perrod, ed by G. Wenzel and Imre Nagy (8 vols, rb 1874-1876); Drplomatrc Records of the Trme of Krng Matthras (Mag and Lat.), ed by Ivan Nagy (rb. 1875-1878); Natrona! Documents (Mag. and Lat), ed by Farkas Deak and others (Pest, 1878-1891); Monnmenta Vatzcana hrs tor ram regnr Hnngarrae rllustrantra (8 vols, Budapest, 1885-I8QI>, a valuable collection of materials from the Vatlcan archives, edited under the ausplces of the Hungarlan bishops; Prrncrpal Sources for the Magyar Conquest (Mag), by Gyula Pauler and Sandor Szilagyi (rb. 1900). Numerous documents have also been issued in the various publications of the Hungarian Academy and the Hungarian Historical Society. Of these the most important is the Monumenta Hungarrae Hrstorrca, published by the Academy. This falls into three main groups. Dr lornata (go vols); Scrrptores (40 vols.); Monurnenta Cornrtralra (iecords o the Hungarian and Transylvanian diets, 12 vols. and 2I vols). With these are associated the Turkrsh Hungarran Records (9 vols), Tnrkrsh Hrstorrans (2 vpls. pubdl), angid ghe Archn/es of the Hungarzan snbordrnate

conn ries 2 vo s. u .
On the sourcespsee Hendrik Marcrali, Ungarns Geschrchtsquellen

rm Zeztalter des Arpdden (Berlin, 1882); Kaindl, Studren zu den nngorzschen Gcschzchtsquellen (Vienna, 1894-1902); and, for a general appreciation, Mangold, Pragmatrc Hrstory of the Hungarrans

(ln Mag., 5th ed, Budapest, 1907).
(b) Works: The modern literature of Hungary is very rich in

historical monographs, of which a long list will be found in the Subject Index of the London Library. Here it is only osslble to give some of the more important general histories, togetfeer with such special works as are most readlly accessible to Engllsh readers. Of the earlier Hungarian historians two are still of some value: Katona Hrs! crmca regum Hungarrae (42 vols, Pest, 1779~1810), and Pray, Annales regum Hnrzgdrzae (5 vols, Vienna, 1764-1770) Of modern histories written in Mag ar the most imposing is the History of the Hnngarzan Natzon (Io vois., Budapest, 1898), issued to commemorate the celebration of the millennium of the foundation of the monarchy,

by Sandor Snlégyi and numerous collaborators. Of importance, too,