Page:EB1911 - Volume 16.djvu/133

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
113
LAMELLIBRANCHIA

is present, being unequally developed only in those few forms which are inequivalve. The typical pericardium is well developed. It, as in other Mollusca, is not a blood-space but develops from the coelom, and it communicates with the exterior by the pair of renal tubes. As in Cephalopoda (and possibly other Mollusca) water can be introduced through the nephridia into this space. The alimentary canal keeps very nearly to the median vertical plane whilst exhibiting a number of flexures and loopings in this plane. A pair of large glandular outgrowths, the so-called “liver” or great digestive gland, exists as in other Molluscs. A pair of pedal otocysts, and a pair of osphradia at the base of the gills, appear to be always present. A typical nervous system is present (fig. 19), consisting of a cerebro-pleural ganglion-pair, united by connectives to a pedal ganglion-pair and a visceral ganglion-pair (parieto-splanchnic).

A pyloric caecum connected with the stomach is commonly found, containing a tough flexible cylinder of transparent cartilaginous appearance, called the “crystalline style” (Mactra). In many Lamellibranchs a gland is found on the hinder surface of the foot in the mid line, which secretes a substance which sets into the form of threads—the so-called “byssus”—by means of which the animal can fix itself. Sometimes this gland is found in the young and not in the adult (Anodonta, Unio, Cyclas). In some Lamellibranchs (Pecten, Spondylus, Pholas, Mactra, Tellina, Pectunculus, Galeomma, &c.), although cephalic eyes are generally absent, special eyes are developed on the free margin of the mantle-skirt, apparently by the modification of tentacles commonly found there. There are no pores in the foot or elsewhere in Lamellibranchia by which water can pass into and out of the vascular system, as formerly asserted.

The Lamellibranchia live chiefly in the sea, some in fresh waters. A very few have the power of swimming by opening and shutting the valves of the shell (Pecten, Lima); most can crawl slowly or burrow rapidly; others are, when adult, permanently fixed to stones or rocks either by the shell or the byssus. In development some Lamellibranchia pass through a free-swimming trochosphere stage with pre-oral ciliated band; other fresh-water forms which carry the young in brood-pouches formed by the ctenidia have suppressed this larval phase.

EB1911 Lamellibranchia - Anodonta cygnea.jpg

Fig. 1.—Diagrams of the external form and anatomy of Anodonta cygnea, the Pond-Mussel; in figures 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 the animal is seen from the left side, the centro-dorsal region uppermost. (1) Animal removed from its shell, a probe g passed into the sub-pallial chamber through the excurrent siphonal notch. (2) View from the ventral surface of an Anodon with its foot expanded and issuing from between the gaping shells. (3) The left mantle-flap reflected upwards so as to expose the sides of the body. (4) Diagrammatic section of Anodon to show the course of the alimentary canal. (5) The two gill-plates of the left side reflected upwards so as to expose the fissure between foot and gill where the probe g passes. (6) Diagram to show the positions of the nerve-ganglia, heart and nephridia.

Letters in all the figures as follows:

a, Centro-dorsal area.
b, Margin of the left mantle-flap.
c, Margin of the right mantle-flap.
d, Excurrent siphonal notch of the mantle margin.
e, Incurrent siphonal notch of the mantle margin.
f, Foot.
g, Probe passed into the superior division of the sub-pallial chamber through the excurrent siphonal notch, and issuing by the side of the foot into the inferior division of the sub-pallial chamber.
h, Anterior (pallial) adductor muscle of the shells.
i, Anterior retractor muscle of the foot.
k, Protractor muscle of the foot.
l, Posterior (pedal) adductor muscle of the shells.
m, Posterior retractor muscle of the foot.
n, Anterior labial tentacle.
o, Posterior labial tentacle.
p, Base-line of origin of the reflected mantle-flap from the side of the body.
q, Left external gill-plate.
r, Left internal gill-plate.
rr, Internal lamella of the right inner gill-plate.
rg, Right outer gill-plate.
s, Line of concrescence of the outer lamella of the left outer gill-plate with the left mantle-flap.
t, Pallial tentacles.
u, The thickened muscular pallial margin which adheres to the shell and forms the pallial line of the left side.
v, That of the right side.
w, The mouth.
x, Aperture of the left organ of Bojanus (nephridium) exposed by cutting the attachment of the inner lamella of the inner gill-plate.
y, Aperture of the genital duct.
z, Fissure between the free edge of the inner lamella of the inner gill-plate and the side of the foot, through which the probe g passes into the upper division of the sub-pallial space.
aa, Line of concrescence of the inner lamella of the right inner gill-plate with the inner lamella of the left inner gill-plate.
ab, ac, ad, Three pit-like depressions in the median line of the foot supposed by some writers to be pores admitting water into the vascular system.
ae, Left shell valve.
af, Space occupied by liver.
ag, Space occupied by gonad.
ah, Muscular substance of the foot.
ai, Duct of the liver on the wall of the stomach.
ak, Stomach.
al, Rectum traversing the ventricle of the heart.
am, Pericardium.
an, Glandular portion of the left nephridium.
ap, Ventricle of the heart.
aq, Aperture by which the left auricle joins the ventricle.
ar, Non-glandular portion of the left nephridium.
as, Anus.
at, Pore leading from the pericardium into the glandular sac of the left nephridium.
au, Pore leading from the glandular into the non-glandular portion of the left nephridium.
av, Internal pore leading from the non-glandular portion of the left nephridium to the external pore x.
aw, Left cerebro-pleuro-visceral ganglion.
ax, Left pedal ganglion.
ay, Left otocyst.
az, Left olfactory ganglion (parieto-splanchnic).
bb, Floor of the pericardium separating that space from the non-glandular portion of the nephridia.

As an example of the organization of a Lamellibranch, we shall review the structure of the common pond-mussel or swan mussel (Anodonta cygnea), comparing it with other Lamellibranchia.

The swan-mussel has superficially a perfectly developed bilateral symmetry. The left side of the animal is seen as when removed from its shell in fig. 1 (1). The valves of the shell have been removed by severing their adhesions to the muscular areae h, i, k, l, m, u. The free edge of the left half of the mantle-skirt b is represented as a little contracted in order to show the exactly similar free edge of the right half of the mantle-skirt c. These edges are not attached to, although they touch, one another; each flap (right or left) can be freely thrown back in the way carried out in fig. 1 (3) for that of the left side. This is not always the case with Lamellibranchs; there is in the group a tendency for the corresponding edges of the mantle-skirt to fuse together by concrescence, and so to form a more or less completely closed bag, as in the Scaphopoda (Dentalium). In this way the notches d, e of the hinder part of the mantle-skirt of Anodonta are in the siphonate forms converted into two separate holes, the edges of the mantle being elsewhere fused together along this hinder margin. Further than this, the part of the mantle-skirt bounding the two holes is frequently drawn out so as to form a pair of tubes which project from the shell (figs. 8, 29). In such Lamellibranchs as the oysters, scallops and many others which have the edges of the mantle-skirt quite free, there are numerous tentacles upon those edges.