Page:EB1911 - Volume 16.djvu/141

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that of other Lamellibranchs, but originates from a single glandular epithelial cell embedded in the tissues on the dorsal anterior side of the adductor muscle. By this it is brought into contact with the fin of a fish, such as perch, stickleback or others, and effects a hold thereon by means of the toothed edge of its shells. Here it becomes encysted, and is nourished by the exudations of the fish. It remains in this condition for a period of two to six weeks, and during this time the permanent organs are developed from the cells of two symmetrical cavities behind the adductor muscle. The early larva of Anodonta is not unlike the trochosphere of other Lamellibranchs, but the mouth is wanting. The glochidium is formed by the precocious development of the anterior adductor and the retardation of all the other organs except the shell. Other Lamellibranchs exhibit either a trochosphere larva which becomes a veliger differing only from the Gastropod’s and Pteropod’s veliger in having bilateral shell-calcifications instead of a single central one; or, like Anodonta, they may develop within the gill-plates of the mother, though without presenting such a specialized larva as the glochidium. An example of the former is seen in the development of the European oyster, to the figure of which and its explanation the reader is specially referred (fig. 23). An example of the latter is seen in a common little fresh-water bivalve, the Pisidium pusillum, which has been studied by Lankester. The gastrula is formed in this case by invagination. The embryonic cells continue to divide, and form an oval vesicle containing liquid (fig. 24); within this, at one pole, is seen the mass of invaginated cells (fig. 25, hy). These invaginated cells are the arch-enteron; they proliferate and give off branching cells, which apply themselves (fig. 25, C) to the inner face of the vesicle, thus forming the mesoblast. The outer single layer of cells which constitutes the surface of the vesicle is the ectoderm or epiblast. The little mass of hypoblast or enteric cell-mass now enlarges, but remains connected with the cicatrix of the blastopore or orifice of invagination by a stalk, the rectal peduncle. The enteron itself becomes bilobed and is joined by a new invagination, that of the mouth and stomodaeum. The mesoblast multiplies its cells, which become partly muscular and partly skeleto-trophic. Centro-dorsally now appears the embyronic shell-gland. The pharynx or stomodaeum is still small, the foot not yet prominent. A later stage is seen in fig. 26, where the pharynx is widely open and the foot prominent. No ciliated velum or pre-oral (cephalic) lobe ever develops. The shell-gland disappears, the mantle-skirt is raised as a ridge, the paired shell-valves are secreted, the anus opens by a proctodaeal ingrowth into the rectal peduncle, and the rudiments of the gills (br) and of the renal organs (B) appear (fig. 26, lateral view), and thus the chief organs and general form of the adult are acquired. Later changes consist in the growth of the shell-valves over the whole area of the mantle-flaps, and in the multiplication of the gill-filaments and their consolidation to form gill-plates. It is important to note that the gill-filaments are formed one by one posteriorly. The labial tentacles are formed late. In the allied genus Cyclas, a byssus gland is formed in the foot and subsequently disappears, but no such gland occurs in Pisidium.

EB1911 Lamellibranchia - embryo of Pisidium - diagram.jpg

Fig.26.—Diagram of Embryo of Pisidium. The unshaded area gives the position of the shell-valve. (After Lankester.)

m, Mouth.
x, Anus.
f, Foot.
br, Branchial filaments.
mn, Margin of the mantle-skirt.
B, Organ of Bojanus.

EB1911 Lamellibranchia - embryo of Yoldia limatula.jpg
After Drew, in Lankester’s Treatise on Zoology. (A. & C. Black.)

Fig. 27.—Surface view of a forty-five hour embryo of Yoldia limatula. a.c, Apical cilia. bl, Blastopore. x, Depression where the cells that form the cerebral ganglia come to the surface.

An extraordinary modification of the veliger occurs in the development of Nucula and Yoldia and probably other members of the same families. After the formation of the gastrula by epibole the larva becomes enclosed by an ectodermic test covering the whole of the original surface of the body, including the shell-gland, and leaving only a small opening at the posterior end in which the stomodaeum and proctodaeum are formed. In Yoldia and Nucula proxima the test consists of five rows of flattened cells, the three median rows bearing circlets of long cilia. At the anterior end of the test is the apical plate from the centre of which projects a long flagellum as in many other Lamellibranch larvae. In Nucula delphinodonta the test is uniformly covered with short cilia, and there is no flagellum. When the larval development is completed the test is cast off, its cells breaking apart and falling to pieces leaving the young animal with a well-developed shell exposed and the internal organs in an advanced state. The test is really a ciliated velum developed in the normal position at the apical pole but reflected backwards in such a way as to cover the original ectoderm except at the posterior end. In Yoldia and Nucula proxima the ova are set free in the water and the test-larvae are free-swimming, but in Nucula delphinodonta the female forms a thin-walled egg-case of mucus attached to the posterior end of the shell and in communication with the pallial chamber; in this case the eggs develop and the test-larva is enclosed. A similar modification of the velum occurs in Dentalium and in Myzomenia among the Amphineura.

Classification of Lamellibranchia

The classification originally based on the structure of the gills by P. Pelseneer included five orders, viz.: the Protobranchia in which the gill-filaments are flattened and not reflected; the Filibranchia in which the filaments are long and reflected, with non-vascular junctions; the Pseudolamellibranchia in which the gill-lamellae are vertically folded, the inter-filamentar and interlamellar junctions being vascular or non-vascular; the Eulamellibranchia in which the inter-filamentar and interlamellar junctions are vascular; and lastly the Septibranchia in which the gills are reduced to a horizontal partition. The Pseudolamellibranchia included the oyster, scallop and their allies which formerly constituted the order Monomyaria, having only a single large adductor muscle or in addition a very small anterior adductor. The researches of W. G. Ridewood have shown that in gill-structure the Pectinacea agree with the Filibranchia and the Ostraeacea with the Eulamellibranchia, and accordingly the order Pseudolamellibranchia is now suppressed and its members divided between the two other orders mentioned. The four orders now retained exhibit successive stages in the modification of the ctenidia by reflection and concrescence of the filament, but other organs, such as the heart, adductors, renal organs, may not show corresponding stages. On the contrary considerable differences in these organs may occur within any single order. The Protobranchia, however, possess several primitive characters besides that of the branchiae. In them the foot has a flat ventral surface used for creeping, as in Gastropods, the byssus gland is but slightly developed, the pleural ganglia are distinct, there is a relic of the pharyngeal cavity, in some forms with a pair of glandular sacs, the gonads retain their primitive connexion with the renal cavities, and the otocysts are open.

Order I. Protobranchia

In addition to the characters given above, it may be noted that the mantle is provided with a hypobranchial gland on the outer side of each gill, the auricles are muscular, the kidneys are glandular through their whole length, the sexes are separate.

Fam. 1. Solenomyidae.—One row of branchial filaments is directed dorsally, the other ventrally; the mantle has a long postero-ventral suture and a single posterior aperture; the labial palps of each side are fused together; shell elongate; hinge without teeth; periostracum thick. Solenomya.

Fam. 2. Nuculidae.—Labial palps free, very broad, and provided with a posterior appendage; branchial filaments transverse; shell has an angular dorsal border; mantle open along its whole border. Nucula. Acila. Pronucula.

Fam. 3. Ledidae.—Like the Nuculidae, but mantle has two posterior sutures and two united siphons. Leda. Yoldia. Malletia.