proved to be sufficiently free from arsenic; but the best oven coke frequently contains so little arsenic that it may be employed with perfect safety, especially if it be mixed with a proportion (e.g. 5 %) of milk of lime, which retains the arsenic as calcium arsenate. In Germany malt is, as a rule, dried and cured with hot air, whilst in Great Britain the products of combustion are passed through the malt, as it is believed that they exert a beneficial influence on the flavour. The proportion of fuel used for drying and curing malt varies according to the quality of the fuel and the construction of the kiln, but on an average it may be placed at 50-80 lb per quarter. Storing.-After the malt has passed through the curing stage it is generally heaped up for a few hours. This is believed to increase its flavour. The malt is then stripped from the kiln, and the rootlets, technically known as the coombs, are removed. Formerly this was effected by workmen treading the rnalt, who wore heavy boots for the purpose. At the present time, however, the rootlets are usually removed by machinery, special forms of which have been devised the green malt is loaded on an ordinary kiln and the initial stages of kilning (see above) conducted in the usual way; the curing, however, may be carried out successfully in a special form of drum.
Yield and Weight.-The malting process is attended with a certain amount of loss of dry substance of the barley, as follows:- Inthe steep ..... . 1-5 to 2'O%
By respiration on floors and on kilns . 3-0, , 5-0 % Coombs ......... 3 0, , 4-o%
Total ........ 7-5, , 11-0%
In addition to this, barley, as already mentioned, contains from I 5 to 20% of moisture, whereas finished malt contains I to 2 %. The total loss in weight which barley undergoes in the malting process may be put down at from 17 to 28 %. Since, however, malt is lighter than barley (and the quantity of both was in former years l
From Sykes & Ling, Prinsiples and Practice of Brewing (1907), Charles Griiiin & Co., Ltd.] FIG. 9.-Diagrammatic view of pneumatic malting, showing pneumatic washing and steeping cisterns. for this as well as for dressing and polishing the malt. It is the custom of some maltsters to store malt with the rootlets still attached; but this is an objectionable practice, since malt coombs attract moisture, and the presence of more than 3% of moisture in malt produces the condition known as “ slackness." When the malt is packed in bin it is often covered with a layer of coombs, which then prevent access of atmospheric moisture. Malt, to preserve its good qualities intact, should be stored in bins made as nearly as possible air-tight, and it should never be placed in bin until it is quite cool. It is probably wrong to store malt in bins adjacent to the kilns, where it is kept at a higher temperature than that of the surrounding atmosphere. During storage of the malt a kind of mellowing occurs, the mechanism of which is not understood. It is, however, known by practical breiwers that the best results cannot be obtained when new mat is use .
Premature Malting.-Several ears ago Galland suggested germinating barley in a drum, his idiea being to do away with handling of the grain, and also to be independent of changes of atmospheric temperature. The latest development of this system, the so-called Galland-Henning process of pneumatic malting, has been improved b Mr R. Blair Robertson, and a diagrammatic view of the interior oi, one of these maltings, showing the drums and conical steeping cisterns, is shown in fig. 9.
The drums are provided with a perforated channel for the passage of air through the malt, which is packed in the annular space between this channel and outside wall of the drum. Each drum is capable of revolving on its axis, and there are arrangements for passing either moist, saturated or dry air through the malt. The system as now improved is capable of producing some of the best malt, especially if, after germination has been completed in the drums, measured exclusively by volume), it frequently happens that a given number of quarters of barley yields a larger number of quarters of finished malt. When this happens it is usual to speak of an increase having been obtained. At the present time weight replaces measure for both barley and malt, and although it is usual to speak of the quantity of grain in terms of quarters, what is meant is not the measured quarter, but so many weighed standard quarters. The standard quarter for English malting barley is 448 lb and for malt 336 lb. From this it will be seen that when a given number of weighed quarters of barley yields the same number of quarters of finished malt, the actual yield is 75 %, and there is then said to be neither increase nor decrease. As a rule, in practical working the yield of malt varies from a 4% decrease to a IO% increase, corresponding to an actual yield on the original barley of 72 to 82-5 %. I. Baverstock, an old writer, says that finished malt should weigh one-fifth less than the barley from which it is produced. This corresponds to a malting increase of about 7%, which is a high yield. As a rule, forei n barley will give a greater malting increase than English barley, because, on the one hand, the former usually contains less moisture than the latter, and, further, because there is less loss on the floors by respiration and rootlet growth. The yield of malt from barley may be determined in the laboratory in an extremely simple manner. Since every grain of barley must yield a grain of malt, if we know the respective weights of a definite number of barley and malt grains, provided that this number is large enough to represent the average, then obviously this gives the data requisite for calculating the yield of malt from barley. The number of corns the weight of which is determined for this purpose is usually 1000, and if the weight of this number be determined on several different 1000 corns, the average will closely approximate