they suffered was celebrated as the birthday of their glory. Martyrology was the most popular literature in the early Church. While the honour paid to martyrdom was a great support to early champions of the faith, it was attended by serious evils. It was thought that martyrdom would atone for sin, and imprisoned confessors not only issued to the Churches commands which were regarded almost as inspired utterances, but granted pardons in rash profusion to those who had been excommunicated by the regular clergy, a practice which caused Cyprian and his fellow bishops much difficulty. The zeal of Ignatius (c. 115), who begs the Roman Church to do nothing to avert from him the martyr’s death, was natural enough in a spiritual knight-errant, but with others in later days, especially in Phrygia and North Africa, the passion became artificial. Fanatics sought death by insulting the magistrates or by breaking idols, and in their enthusiasm for martyrdom became self-centred and forgetful of their normal duty. None the less it is true that these men and women endured torments, often unthinkable in their cruelty, and death rather than abandon their faith. The same phenomena have been witnessed, not only in the conflicts within the Church that marked the 13th to the 16th centuries, but in the different mission fields, and particularly in Madagascar and China.
See A. J. Mason, The Historic Martyrs of the Primitive Church (London, 1905); H. B. Workman, Persecution in the Early Church (London, 1906); Paul Allard, Ten Lectures on the Martyrs (London, 1907); John Foxe, The Book of Martyrs; Mary I. Bryson, Cross and Crown (London, 1904).
MARTYROLOGY, a catalogue or list of martyrs, or, more exactly, of saints, arranged in the order of their anniversaries. This is the now accepted meaning in the Latin Church. In the Greek Church the nearest equivalent to the martyrology is the Synaxarium (q.v.). As regards form, we should distinguish between simple martyrologies, which consist merely of an enumeration of names, and historical martyrologies, which also include stories or biographical details. As regards documents, the most important distinction is between local and general martyrologies. The former give a list of the festivals of some particular Church; the latter are the result of a combination of several local martyrologies. We may add certain compilations of a factitious character, to which the name of martyrology is given by analogy, e.g. the Martyrologe universel of Châtelain (1709). As types of local martyrologies we may quote that of Rome, formed from the Depositio martyrum and the Depositio episcoporum of the chronograph of 354; the Gothic calendar of Ulfila’s Bible, the calendar of Carthage published by Mabillon, the calendar of fasts and vigils of the Church of Tours, going back as far as Bishop Perpetuus (d. 490), and preserved in the Historia francorum (xi. 31) of Gregory of Tours. The Syriac martyrology discovered by Wright (Journal of Sacred Literature, 1866) gives the idea of a general martyrology. The most important ancient martyrology preserved to the present day is the compilation falsely attributed to St Jerome, which in its present form goes back to the end of the 6th century. It is the result of the combination of a general martyrology of the Eastern Churches, a local martyrology of the Church of Rome, some general martyrologies of Italy and Africa, and a series of local martyrologies of Gaul. The task of critics is to distinguish between its various constituent elements. Unfortunately, this document has reached us in a lamentable condition. The proper names are distorted, repeated or misplaced, and in many places the text is so corrupt that it is impossible to understand it. With the exception of a few traces of borrowings from the Passions of the martyrs, the compilation is in the form of a simple martyrology. Of the best-known historical martyrologies the oldest are those which go under the name of Bede and of Florus (Acta sanctorum Martii, vol. ii.); of Wandelbert, a monk of Prüm (842); of Rhabanus Maurus (c. 845); of Ado (d. 875); of Notker (896); and of Wolfhard (c. 896 v. Analecta bollandiana, xvii. 11). The most famous is that of Usuard (c. 875), on which the Roman martyrology was based. The first edition of the Roman martyrology appeared at Rome in 1583. The third edition, which appeared in 1584, was approved by Gregory XIII., who imposed the Roman martyrology upon the whole Church. In 1586 Baronius published his annotated edition, which in spite of its omissions and inaccuracies is a mine of valuable information.
The chief works on the martyrologies are those of Rosweyde, who in 1613 published at Antwerp the martyrology of Ado (also edition of Giorgi, Rome, 1745); of Sollerius, to whom we owe a learned edition of Usuard (Acta sanctorum Junii, vols. vi. and vii.); and of Fiorentini, who published in 1688 an annotated edition of the Martyrology of St Jerome. The critical edition of the latter by J. B. de Rossi and Mgr. L. Duchesne, was published in 1894, in vol. ii. of the Acta sanctorum Novembris. The historical martyrologies taken as a whole have been studied by Dom Quentin (1908). There are also numerous editions of calendars or martyrologies of less universal interest, and commentaries upon them. Mention ought to be made of the famous calendar of Naples, commented on by Mazocchi (Naples, 1744) and Sabbatini (Naples, 1744).
See C. de Smedt, Introductio generalis ad historiam ecclesiasticam (Gandavi, 1876), pp. 127–156; H. Matagne and V. de Buck in De Backer, Bibliothèque des écrivains de la Compagnie de Jésus, 2nd ed., vol. iii. pp. 369-387; De Rossi-Duchesne, Les Sources du martyrologe hiéronymien (Rome, 1885); H. Achelis, Die Martyrologien, ihre Geschichte und ihr Wert (Berlin, 1900); H. Delehaye, “Le Témoignage des martyrologes,” in Analecta bollandiana, xxvi. 78-99 (1907); H. Quentin, Les Martyrologes historiques du moyen âge (Paris, 1908). (H. De.)
MARULLUS, MICHAEL TARCHANIOTA (d. 1500), Greek scholar, poet, and soldier, was born at Constantinople. In 1453, when the Turks captured Constantinople, he was taken to Ancona in Italy, where he became the friend and pupil of J. J. Pontanus, with whom his name is associated by Ariosto (Orl. Fur. xxxvii. 8). He received his education at Florence, where he obtained the patronage of Lorenzo de’ Medici. He was the author of epigrams and hymni naturales, in which he happily imitated Lucretius. He took no part in the work of translation, then the favourite exercise of scholars, but he was understood to be planning some great work when he was drowned, on the 10th of April 1500, in the river Cecina near Volterra. He was a bitter enemy of Politian, whose successful rival he had been in the affections of the beautiful and learned Alessandra Scala. He is remembered chiefly for the brilliant emendations on Lucretius which he left unpublished; these were used for the Juntine edition (Munro’s Lucretius, Introduction).
The hymns, some of the epigrams, and a fragment, De Principum institutione, were reprinted in Paris by C. M. Sathas in Documents inédits relatifs à l’histoire de la Grèce au moyen âge, vol. vii. (1888).
MARUM, MARTIN VAN (1750–1837), Dutch man of science, was born on the 20th of March 1750 at Groningen, where he graduated in medicine and philosophy. He began to practise medicine at Haarlem, but devoted himself mainly to lecturing on physical subjects. He became secretary of the scientific society of that city, and under his management the society was advanced to the position of one of the most noted in Europe. He was also entrusted with the care of the collection left to Haarlem by P. Teyler van der Hulst (1702–1778). His name is not associated with any discovery of the first order, but his researches (especially in connexion with electricity) were remarkable for their number and variety. He died at Haarlem on the 26th of December 1837.
MARUTS, in Hindu mythology, storm-gods. Their numbers vary in the different scriptures, usually thrice seven or thrice sixty. In the Vedas they are called the sons of Rudra. They are the companions of Indra, and associated with him in the wielding of thunderbolts, sometimes as his equals, sometimes as his servants. They are armed with golden weapons and lightnings. They split drought (Vritra) and bring rain, and cause earthquakes. Various myths surround their birth. A derivative word, Maruti or Maroti, is the popular name throughout the Deccan for Hanuman (q.v.).
MARVELL, ANDREW (1621–1678), English poet and satirist, son of Andrew Marvell and his wife Anne Pease, was born at the rectory house, Winestead, in the Holderness division of Yorkshire, on the 31st of March 1621. In 1624 his father exchanged the living of Winestead for the mastership of Hull grammar school. He also became lecturer at Holy Trinity Church and