Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/137

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the present day has two compartments which, fastened at 'the back by hinges, close together like a book. The original portmanteau (adopted from Fr. portmanteau, porter, to carry, manteau, cloak, mantle) was a flexible round leather case to hold a cloak or other garment and of such a shape as could conveniently be carried on a rider's saddle. In French the word was also applied to a bracket or set of pegs on which to hang clothes. C. L. Dodgson (“ Lewis Carroll ”) in Through the Looking Glass (“ The Song of the Iabberwock ”) used the expression “ portmanteau word ” of an invented word composed of two words run together and supposed to convey humorously the combined meaning: thus “ slithy” conveys slimy and lithe; “ mimsy,” flimsy and miserable.

PORTO ALEGRE, a city and port of Brazil, capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, at the northern extremity of Lagoa dos Patos on the eastern shore of an estuary called Rio Guahyba, about 160 m. from the port of Rio Grande do Sul at the entrance to the lake. The population which contains a large foreign element, chiefly German and Italian, was returned as 73,574 by the census of 1900, including some outlying districts not within urban limits. The municipio (commune), which has an area of 931 sq. m., had a population of nearly 100,000: including a large number of prosperous colonists. The railway from Porto Alegre to Novo Hamburgo and Taquara (55 m.) aiiords an outlet for some of the older German colonies. The railway from Porto Alegre to Uruguayana is completed from Margem da Taquary to Cacequy, 232 m. Its starting point, Margem da Taquary, is about 80 m. from the city, with which it is connected by river steamers. An extension of the railway is projected from Margem da Taquary to Neustadt on the Novo Hamburgo line, and will give the city direct railway Connexion with the principal cities of western and southern Rio Grande do Sul. The Rio Guahyba, which is not a river, was once called “ Viamao ” because its outline is roughly that of the human hand, the rivers entering the estuary at its head corresponding to the lingers. The lower channels of these rivers (the Gravaty, Sinos, Cahy, Iacuhy and Taquary) are all navigable and bring considerable trade to the port. Its foreign trade is limited to light-draught steamers able to cross the bar at the entrance to the lake.

The city occupies a tongue of land projecting into the estuary, and extends along its shores and back to a low wooded hill. Its site, as seen from the water, is attractive, though its larger part is an almost level plain. There are pleasant suburbs along the shore and farther inland (Floresta, Gloria, Moinhos de Vento, i.e. “ Windmills, ” Navigantes and Partenon). The climate is subtropical, cool and bracing in winter but insufferably hot in summer. The mean annual temperature is slightly under 69° F., the average maximum being a little over 82° and the average minimum 5g°. The annual rainfall is about 30% in. The city is regularly laid out with broad, straight, well-paved streets, in great part lined with shady trees. The waterside streets, however, follow the curve of the beach. There are several public squares and gardens, the more important being the Praga Harmoma, the Praga d'Alfandega, Praca da lndependenciaand the Parque, where an exposition was held in 1901. The public water supply is drawn from a range of hills 6 m. distant and is considered good. Porto Alegre, like many Brazilian cities, is in a transition stage, and handsome new structures of French and Italian styles rise from amon% the low, heavy and plain old buildings of Portuguese origin. rick and broken stone are chiefly used in the walls, which are plastered outside and tinted. Tiles are used for roofing, and on modern ediiices stucco ornamentation is lavishly employed. The most noteworthy public buildings are the Cathedral (Porto Alegre being the see of a Roman Catholic bishop), the handsome church of Nossa Senhora das Dores, the municipal palace, school of engineering, government palace, legislative halls, school of medicine, athenaeum, normal school and public library and military barracks. One of the hospitals-that of Caridade-is the largest in the state. The city is the chief commercial centre of the state and has shipyards for the construction of river and lake vessels. It manufactures cotton fabrics, boots and shoes, iron safes and stoves, carriages, furniture, butter and cheese, macaroni, preserves, candles, soap and paper. Porto Alegre was founded in 1743 by immigrants from the Azores and was at first known as Porto dos Cazaes. Owing to the occupation of the southern part of the captaincy by the Spaniards, Governor jose Marcellino de Figuereido selected this village in 1770 as his official residence and gave to it the name it now bears. It was made a villa in ISO3, and in 1807, when Rio Grande do Sul was made a captaincy-general, the transfer of the capital from Rio Grande to Porto Alegre was ohicially recognized. In 1822 it was raised to the rank of a city, and in 1841, as a reward for its loyalty in revolutionary wars of that province, it was distinguished by the title of lea! e 'valorosa (loyal and valorous). The first German immigrants to settle near Porto Alegre arrived in 1825, and much of its prosperity and commercial standing is due to the German element.

PORTOCARRERO, LUIS MANUEL FERNANDEZ DE (1635–1709), cardinal archbishop of Toledo, was a younger son of the marquis of Almenara and was born on the 8th of January 1635. He became dean of Toledo early, and was made cardinal on the 5th of August 1669. Till 1677 he lived at Rome as cardinal protector of the Spanish nation. In 1677 he was appointed interim viceroy of Sicily, counsellor of state and archbishop of Toledo. He ceased to be viceroy of Sicily in 1678. As archbishop of Toledo he exerted himself to protect the clergy from the obligation to pay the excises or octroi duties known as “the millions” and thereby helped to perpetuate the financial embarrassments of the government. His position rather than any personal qualities enabled him to play an important part in a great crisis of European politics. The decrepit King Charles II. was childless, and the disposal of his inheritance became a question of great interest to the European powers. Portocarrero was induced to become a supporter of the French party, which desired that the crown should be left to one of the family of Louis XIV., and not to a member of the king's own family, the Habsburgs. The great authority of Portocarrero as cardinal and primate of Spain was used to persuade, or rather to terrify the unhappy king into making a will in favour of the duke of Anjou, Philip V. He acted as regent till the new king reached Spain and hoped to be powerful under his rule. But the king's French advisers were aware that Spain required a thorough financial and administrative reform. Portocarrero could not see, and indeed had not either the intelligence or the honesty to see, the necessity. He was incapable, obstinate and perfectly seliish. The new rulers soon found that he lmust be removed and he was ordered to return to his diocese. When in 1706 the Austrian party appeared likely to gain the upper hand, Portocarrero was led by spite and vexation to go over to them. When fortune changed he returned to his allegiance to Philip V., and as the government was unwilling to offend the Church he escaped banishment. In 1709 when Louis XIV. made a pretence of withdrawing from the support of his grandson, the cardinal made a great display of loyalty. He died on the 14th of September and by his orders the words Hic jacet pulvis, cinis, et nihil were put on his tomb.

See Lord Stanhope, History of the War of Succession in Spain (London, 1832).

PORTO FARINA, a town of Tunisia about 20 m. E. of Bizerta, on the Ghar-el-Mela, a lagoon, also known as the Lake of Porto Farina, at the mouth of the Mejerda (the ancient Bagradas). Porto Farina was the naval arsenal of the piratical beys of Tunis and was bombarded by the English under Admiral Blake in 1655. The lagoon has become very shallow in consequence of the silt brought down by the Mejerda. The town has ceased to be important, and its inhabitants have dwindled to about 1500. The ruins IO rn. to the south-west, near the village of Bu Shater, are identified with the ancient Utica (q.v.).

PORTO MAURIZIO, a city of Liguria, Italy, the capital of the province of Porto Maurizio, on the coast of the Ligurian Sea, 46 m. by rail E. of Nice and 70 m. S.W. of Genoa, 115 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901), 7207. It consists of a picturesque old town on the heights and a modern town of villas on the lower slopes. The principal church, designed by Gaetano Cantone, is a large structure of 1780 with a dome rebuilt in 1821. A few remains of the old city walls may be seen. About 2 m. north-east of Porto Maurizio is the town of Oneglia, with a fine church, S. Giovanni Battista, designed by Gaetano Amoretti, a hospital (1785) and a large prison. It suffered considerably from the earthquake of 1887. Maurizio and Oneglia lie on the same bag