His stories, particularly As Pupillas do Snr. Reitor, depict country life and scenery with loving sympathy, and hold the reader by the charm of the characters, but Diniz is a rather subjective monotonous writer who lacks the power to analyse, and he is no psychologist. Eça de Queiroz (q.v.) founded the Naturalist school in Portugal by a powerful book written in 1871, but only published in 1875, under the title The Crime of Father Amaro; and two of his great romances, Cousin Basil and Os Maias, were written during his occupancy of consular posts in England. The Relic conveys the impressions of a journey in Palestine and in parts suggests his indebtedness to Flaubert, but its mysticism is entirely new and individual; while the versatility of his talent further appears in The Correspondence of Fradique Mendes, where acute observation is combined with brilliant satire or rich humour. The later portion of The City and the Mountains, for the truth and beauty of its descriptive passages, is highly praised, and many pages are already quoted as classic examples of Portuguese prose. Among other novelists are Oliveira Marreca, Pinheiro Chagas, Arnaldo Gama, Luis de Magalhaes and Teixeira de Queiroz, the last of whom is almost as distinctly national a. writer as Castello Branco himself.
Years of persevering toil in archives and editions of old chronicles prepared Herculano for his magnum opus, the Historia de Portugal. The Historia da Origem e Estabelecimento do Inquisição em Portugal followed and confirmed the position of its author as the leading modernHistory. historian of the Peninsula, and he further initiated and edited the important series Portugaliae Monumenta historic. The Visconde de Santarem, and Indice Biker in geography and diplomatics, produced standard works; Luz Soriano compiled painstaking histories of the reign of King Joseph and of the Peninsular War; Silvestre Ribeiro printed a learned account of the scientific, literary and artistic establishments of Portugal, and Lieut.-Colonel Christovam Ayres was the author of a history of the Portuguese army. Rebello da Silva and the voluminous and brilliant publicists, Latino Coelho and Pinheiro Chagas, wrote at second hand and rank higher as stylists than as historians. Gama Barros and Costa Lobo followed closely in the footsteps of Herculano, the first by a Historia da Administração publica em Portugal nos Seculos XII. a X. V., positively packed with learning, the second by a Historia da Sociedade em Portugal no Seculo XV. Though he had no time for original research, Oliveira Martins (q.v.) possessed psychological imagination, a rare capacity for general ideas and the gift of picturesque narration; and in his philosophic Historia de Portugal, his sensational Portugal contemporaneo, Os Filhos de D. João and Vida de Nun’ Alvarez, he painted an admirable series of portraits and, following his master Michelet, made the past live again. Furthermore the interesting volumes of his Bibliotheca das Sciencias Sociaes show extensive knowledge, freshness of views and critical independence and they have greatly contributed to the education of his countrymen.
Ramalho Ortigao, the art critic, will be remembered principally for the Farpas, a series of satirical and humorous sketches of Portuguese society which he wrote in collaboration with Queiroz. Julio Cesar Machado and Fialho de Almeida made their mark by many humorous publications,Criticism. and, in the domain of pure literary criticism, mention must be made of Antonio Pedro Lopes de Mendonga, Rebello da Silva, Dr Ioaquim de Vasconcellos, Mme Michaélis de Vasconcellos, Silva Pinto, the favourite disciple of Castello Branco, and of Luciano Cordeiro, founder of the Lisbon Geographical Society, whose able monograph, Soror Marianna, vindicated the authenticity of the Letters of a Portuguese Nun and showed Marianna Alcoforado to be their authoress. Excellent critical work was also done by Moniz Barreto, whose early death was a serious loss to letters.
In scientific literature hardly a single department lacks a name of repute even outside Portugal. The press has accompanied the general progress, and ever since Herculano founded and wrote in the Panorama, the leading writers have almost without exception made both name and livelihood by writing for the papers, but as pure journalists none has excelled Antonio Rodriguez Sampaio, Antonio Augusto Teixeira de Vasconcellos and Emygdio Navarro.
The leading Portuguese orators of the 19th century, with the exception of Malhao, were not churchmen, as in the past, but politicians. The early days of parliamentary rule produced Manoel Fernandes Thomás and Manoel Borges Carneiro, but the most brilliant period was that of theOratory. first twenty-five years of constitutional government after 1834, and the historic names are those of Garrett, Manoel da Silva Passos, and the great tribune and apostle of liberty, Iosé Estevao Coelho de Magalhaes. The ill-fated Vieira de Castro excited the greatest admiration by his impassioned speeches in the Chamber of Deputies during the ’sixties; the nearest modern counterpart to these distinguished men is the orator Antonio Candido Ribeiro da Costa.
Bibliography.—The corner-stones are the Bibliotheca Lusitana of Barbosa Machado and the Diccionario bibliographico portuguez, by lnnocencio da Silva, with Brito Aranha's supplement; while the Bibliotheca Hispana Nova of Nicolao Antonio (1783-1788) may also be referred to. Subsidiary to these are the Manual bibliographic portuguez of Dr Pinto de Mattos, the admirable Catalogo razonado de los Autores Portugueses que escribieron en Castellano, compiled by Garcia Peres (1890), and such publications as Figaniere's atalogo dos Manuscriptos portuguezes no Museu Britannica (1853). The only full general history of the literature comes from the prolific pen of Dr Theophilo Braga (second and revised edition in 32 vols.). The volumes positively bulge with information and contain much acute criticism, but their value is diminished by frequent and needless digressions and by the fantastic theorizing of their author, a militant Positivist. Of one-volume books on the same subject, Dr Braga's Curso da Historia da Litteratura portugueza and his Theoria da Historia da Litteratura portugueza (3rd ed., 1881) may be recommended, though the plainer- Historia da Litteratura portugueza, by Dr Mendes dos Remedios (3rd ed., 1908) has the considerable advantage for foreign students of including a large number of selected passages from the authors named. See also the Chrestomathia arehaioa of J. J. Nunes (1905). .Among foreign studies the palm must be given to the “ Geschichte der portugiesischen Litteratur " by the eminent scholar, Mme Michaelis de Vasconcellos, in the Grundriss der rom. Philologie of Grober (1893-1894). Among general critical studies are Costa e Silva's Ensaio biographic-eritico and the maigerly work of Menendez y Pelayo, Historia de las ideas estaticas en España.
Coming to special periods, the student may consult, for the cancioneiros, Mme Michaélis de Vasconcellos, op. vit., and her great edition of the Cancioneiro do Ajuda (1904); also H. R. Lang, Das Liederbuch der Konigs Denis 'von Portugal (1894). Lopes de Mendonga treats of the literature of the 16th and 17th centuries in articles in the Annaes das sciencias e letras; and the Memorias de litteratura portugueza printed by the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (1792-1814) contain essays on the drama and the Arcadia, but the I9tl'l century has naturally received most attention. For that period, see Lopes de Mendonga, Memoiras da litteratura contemporanea (1855); Romero Ortiz, La Literatura portugueza en el siglo XIX. (1869), containing much undigested information; and Maxime Formont, Le Mouvement poétigue contemporain en Portugal, an able sketch; but the soundest review is due to Moniz Barreto, whose “ Litteratura portugueza contemporanea ” came out in the Revista de Portugal for July 1889. Students of the modern novel in Portugal should refer to the essays of J. Pereira de Sampaio (“ Bruno ) A Geração Nova (1886).
Portugal still lacks a collection equivalent to Rivadeneyra's Biblioteca de autores españoles, contenting itself with the Parnasso lusitano (6 vols., 1826) and a Corpus illustrium poetarum lusitanorum qui latine scripserunt (1745–1748), and though much has been accomplished to make the classics more available, even yet no correct, not to say critical, texts of many notable writers exist. The Cancioneiro de Ajuda by Mme Vasconcellos, is the perfection of editing, and there are diplomatic editions of other cancioneiros, e.g. Il Canzoniere portoghese della Bibliotheca Vaticano, by E. Monaci (1875), of which Dr Braga hurriedly prepared a critical edition; Il Canzoniere portoghese Colocei-Brancuti by E. Molteni (1880), and the Canoioneiro Geral (1846). The Romanceiro portuguez of V. E. Hardung is incomplete. (E. Pr.)
PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA, or Mozambique. This Portuguese possession, bounded E. by the Indian Ocean, N. by German East Africa, W. by the Nyasaland Protectorate, Rhodesia and the Transvaal, S. by Tongaland (Natal), has an area of 293,500 sq. m. It is divided in two by the river Zambezi. The northern portion, between the ocean and Lake Nyasa and the Shiré river, is a co1npact block of territory, squarish in Oratory.