are very slight, and they tend; to assimilate more as" time goes on.
Polo in the army is governed by an army polo committee, which fixes the date of the inter-regimental tournament. The semi-finals and finals are played at Hurlingham. The earlier ties take place at centres arranged by the army polo committee, who are charged by the military authorities with the duty of checking the expenditure of officers on the game. The value of polo as a military exercise is now fully recognized, and with the co-operation of Hurlingham, Ranelagh and Roehampton the expenses of inter-regimental tournaments have been regulated and restrained.
The County Polo Association has affiliated to it all the. county clubs. It is a powerful body, arranging the conditions of county tournaments, constructing the handicaps for county players, and in conjunction with the Ranelagh club holding a polo week for county players in London. The London clubs are three-Hurlingham, Ranelagh and Roehampton. Except that they use Hurlingham rules the clubs are independent, and arrange the conditions and fix the dates of their own tournaments. Ranelagh has four, Roehampton three and'Hurlingham two polo grounds. There are about 400 matches played at these clubs, besides members' games from May to July during the London season. At present the Meadowbrook still hold the cup which was won |, ,¢e, . by an English team in 1886. In 1902»an 'American national team made an attempt to recover it and failed. P°'°° They lacked ponies and combination; but they bought the first and learned the second, and tried again successfully in 1909, thus depriving English polo of the championship of the world.
Polo in England has passed through several stages. It was always a game of skill. The cavalry regiments in India in early me G, me polo days, the 5th, 9th, 12th and 17th Lancers, the 10th Hussars and the 13th Hussars, had all learned the value of combination. In very early days regimental players had learned the value of the backhanded stroke, placing the ball so as to give opportunities to their own side. The duty of supporting the other members of the team and riding off opponents so as to clear the way for players on the same side was understood. This combination was made, easier when the teams were reduced froni five a side to four. Greatfstress was laid on each man keeping his place, but a more flexmle style of play existed from early days in the 17th Lancers and was improved and perfected at the Rugby Club by the late Colonel Gordon Renton and Captain E. D. Miller, who had belonged to that regiment. Fora long time the Rugby style of play, with its close combination, short passes and 'steady defence, was the model on which other teams formed themselves. The secret of the success of Rugby was the close and unselfish combination and the hard work done by every member of the team. After the American victories of 1909 a bolder, harder hitting style was adopted, and the work of the forwards became more important, and longer passes are now the rule. But the main principles are the same. The forwards lead the attack and are supported by the half-back and back when playing towards the adversaries' goal. In defence the forwards hamper the opposing No. 3, and No. 4 and endeavour to clear the way for their own No. 3 and No. 4, who are trying not merely to keep the ball out of their own goal but to turn defence into attack'. .Each individual player must be a good horseman, able to make a pony gallop, must have a control of the ball, hitting hard and clean and in the direction he wishes it to go. He must keep his eye on the ball and yet know where the goal-posts are, must be careful not to incur penalties and quick to take advantage of an opportunity. Polo gives no time for second thoughts. A polo player must not be in a hurry, but he must never be slow nor dwell on his stroke. He must be able to hit when galloping his best pace on to the ball and able to use the speed of his pony in order to get pace. He must be able to hit a backhander or to meet a ball coming to him, as the tactics of the game require. Polo has given rise to a new type of horse, an animal of I4 hands 2 in. with the power of a hunter, the courage of a raceliorse and the docility of a pony. At irst the ponies were small, but now each pony must pass the Hurlingham official measurer and be entered on the register. The English The Polo system of measurement is the fairest and most PGH!- humane possible. The pony stripped of his clothing is led by an attendant, not his own groom, into a box with a perfectly level floor and shut off from every distraction. A veterinary surgeon examines to see that the pony is neither drugged nor in any way improperly prepared. The pony is- allowed to stand easily, and at measuring standard with a spirit-level is then placed on the highest point of the wither, and if the pony measures 14- 2 and is five years old it is registered for life. Ponies are of many breedsj There are Arabs, Argentines, Americans, Irish and English ponies, the last two being the best. The Polo and Riding Pony Society, with headquarters at 12 Hanover Square, looks after the interests of the English and Irish pony and encourages their breeders. The English ponies are now bred- largely for the game and are a blend of thoroughbred blood (the best are always the race-winning strains) or Arab and of the English native pony.Authorities.—Polo in England: J. Moray Brown, Riding and Polo, Badminton Library, revised and brought up to date by T. F . Dale (Longmans, 1899); Captain Younghusband, Polo in India, (n.d.); ]. Moray Brown, Polo (Vinton, 1896); T. F. Dale, The Game ofPolo (A. Constable & Co., 1897); Captain Younghusband, Tournament Polo (1897); Captain de Lisle, Durham Light Infantry, Hints to Polo Players in India (1897); T. B. Drybrough, Polo (Vinton, 1898; revised, Longmans, 1906); Captain E. D. Miller, Modern Polo (1905); H. L. Fitzpatrick, Equestrian Polo, in Spalding's Athletic Library (1904); Major G. ]. Younghusband, Tournament Polo (1904); T. F. Dale “ Polo, Past and Present, " Country Life; Walter Buckmaster, “Hints on Polo Combination, ” Library of Sport (George Newnes Ltd., 1905; Vinton & Co., 1909); Hurlingham Club, Rules of Polo, Register of Ponies; Polo and Riding Pony Society Stud Book (12 vols., 12 Hanover Square). Annuals: American Polo Association, 143 Liberty Street, New York; Indian Polo Association, Lucknow, N. P.; Captain E. D. 'Miller, D.S.O., 'The Polo Players' Guide and Almanack; The Polo Annual, ed. by L. V. L. Simmonds. Monthlies: Bailey's Magazine (Vinton & Co.); The Polo .Monthly (Craven House, Kingsway, London).-Polo in Persia: Firdousi's Shahnama, translated as Le Livre des rois by ]. Mohl, with notes and comm.; Sir Anthony Shirley, Travels in Persia (1569); Sir John Chardin, Voyages en Perse (1686), ed. aug. de notes, &c. par L. Langles, 1811; Sir William Duseley, Travels in Various Countries of the East, particularly Persia 1810 .
There are many allusions to polo in the poets, notably Nizami, lami and Omar Khayyam. 1
Polo in Constantinople: Cinnamus Joannes- epitome rerum; ab loanne et Alexio Commenis gest. (Bonn, 1836). Polo in India: Ain-i-Akbari (1555); G. F. Vigne, Travels in Kashmir (Ladakh and Iskardo, 1842); Colonel Algernon Durand, The Making of a Frontier (1899). A
Polo in Gilgit and Chitral: “ Polo in Baltistan." The Field (1888); Polo in Manipur, Captain McCulloch, A/Ianipuris and the Adjacent Tribes (1859). (T. F. D.)
POLONAISE (i.e. Polish, in French), a stately ceremonious dance, usually written in Sf time. As a form of musical composition it has been employed by such composers as Bach, Handel, Beethoven, and above all by Chopin. It is usual to date the origin of the dance from the election (1573) of Henry duke of Anjou, afterwards Henry III. of France, to the throne of Poland. The ladies of the Polish nobility passed in ceremonial procession before him at Cracow to the sound of stately music. This procession of music became the regular opening ceremony at royal functions, and developed into the dance. The term is also given to a form of skirted bodice, which has been fashionable for ladies at different periods.
POLONNARUWA, a ruined city and ancient capital of Ceylon. It first became a royal residence in A.D. 368, when the lake of Topawewa was formed, and succeeded Anuradhapura as the capital in the middle of the 8th century. The principal ruins date chiefly from the time of Prakrama Bahu (A.D. 1153-1186). The most imposing pile remaining is the Jetawanarama temple, a building 170 ft. in length, with walls about 80 ft. high and 12 ft. thick. The city is now entirely deserted, and, as in the case of Anuradhapura, its ruins have only recently been rescued from the jungle.