Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/267

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being identical in form. Very similarly are declined the bases ending in other vowels. The few still ending in consonants and which have not become merged in the a-declension, present numerous apparent irregularities, due to the inevitable phonetic changes, which must be learned from the textbooks.

past participle passive has survived under the form -ia-. Many direct representatives of Skr. participles in -ta- (without the ¢) and -na- also appear. Thus, Skr. dmfta-, Pr. diitha-, seen; Sknlagna-, Pr. lagga-, attached. As usual there is a tendency to simplification, and the termination ia is commonly added to the Pr. present base, more often, to the present stem.

instead of following Skr. analogy.

Skr. S. Ap. M. AMg. Mg. Thus, not only have we tatta- formed - directly from the Skr. tapta-, but we

Singular: have also tarlia- from the Pr. present Nom. putras putta puttu putté pulté putté stem:fav-ai (=Skr. tapati), he is hot. Acc. patram puttam puttu puttam puttam puttam All the three forms of the future Instr. putréna putténa pam? putténahh) putténa(m) putténa passive participle or gerundive, in Dat. putrliya - - puttaa puttaé puttzia -tavya-, -aniya- and -ya-, have sur-Abl. pumit puttdda putlahu puttcia puttda puttdda vived, The infinitive has survived, not Gen. putrasya puttassa puttaho, puttassa puttassa, puttaiia only with the form corresponding to puttaha pattdha the classical Sanskrit termination Loc. pulré putté putti, putté, putté, putlé, -tum, but also with several old Vedic

  • putrasmin puttammi puttammi puttammi, forms. The same is the case with

puttahi puttdhim the gerund, in which both the

Plural: classical forms in -tad and -(t)ya

Nom. putras puttri putta pulta putld puttd have survived, but with the loss of Acc. putnin putté putté putté putté, putté the distinctive use which obtained in putta puttzi putta Sanskrit. Besides these there are Instr. *putrébhis puttéhim puttahi puttéhim' puttéhim puttéhim also survivals of Vedic forms, and Abl. putrébhyas puttdhim-£6 puttahi puttdhim-ta puttéhim-t6 puttfihirh-£6 even of Primary Prakrit forms not Gen. putrdgzam puttanam puttahd pultanam puzzaaam puttdnariz, found in the Veda. The passive is puttfihd generally formed by adding -jja or,

Loc. putrésu ' puttésa(m) puttahi ' puttésu ' puttésu ' putté.§ u(m) in S. and Mg., -'Za-, to the root or, All the Skr. pronouns appear in Pr., but often in extremely abraded shapes. It would, for instance, be difficult to recognize the Skr. tvzim in the Ap. pai. There is also a most luxuriant growth of by-forms, the genitive plural of the pronoun of the second person being, e.g., represented by no less than twenty-five different words in M. alone. We also find forms which have no original in classical Skr. Thus, in that language, the pronoun sa-, he, is only used in the nominative singular of two genders, but occurs also in other cases in Pr.

Thus, M. pucchijjai or S. pucchiadi, he is being asked. The following are therefore the only tenses which are fully conjugated in Pr.: the present, the imperative, the future and the optative. Except in Ap., the personal terminations in general correspond to the Skr. ones, but in Ap. there are some forms which probably go back to unrecorded Primary Prakrits and have not as yet been explained. As an example we take the conjugation of the base puccha-, ask (Skr. pgcchati), in the present tense. Conjugation.-The Pr. verb shows even more ' V I

decay than does the noun. With a few isolated Ski-' S' Ap' M' AMg' Mg exceptions, allftrace of the second, or consonantal, Sing conjugation o Skr. has disa peared, and (much I ' ~ R, ~ — pgcchamt pucchamt pucchau pucchamz pucchamr puscamz ?, ;.*r§ .?.;'.§ ”§ ;;:;;';a.2hf.;“;;.§ '§ “;';'sS£.z“.;@;§ , S, ;;€ 2- ffcfjwf f»~, »;f»¢, f, Wygfrof-hi furcjaff page wig. tion. This a-conjugation, on the other hand, falls Pi" pf” an Pu” 0 " P1400 1" P1466 tw pucc az pu ca 1 into two classes, the first being the a-conjuga- I ' H - ~ . prgcchamas pucchamo pucchahu pucchamo pucchamo puscamo

vh§ 'Cr§ pif{e aéndret1;;ef'§ ;O1?le tif ae § ?n{E§ at§ T§ ' 2. pgcchatha pucchaziha pucchahu pucchaha pucchaha pufcadha

p y - ' 3. pfcchanti pucchanti pucchahi pucchanti pacchann puécantr 10th class and of causal and denominative verbs. The litmanépada voice of Skr. has practically »

lan ua es

disappeared in the Midland, and even in the Outer g g it is not common. The present participle is the only form which has everywhere survived. The other forms are supplied by the parasmaipada. All the past tenses (im erfect, perfect and aorists) have fallen into disuse, leaving only a few sporadic remains, their place being supplied, as in the case of the tertiary vernaculars, by the participles, with or without auxiliary verbs. The present tense of the verb substantive has survived from Skr., but it is usual to employ atthi (=Skr. asti) for both numbers and all persons of the present, and ds? (=asit) for both numbers and all persons of the past. It is interesting to note that the latter has survived in the modern Panjabi si, was, in which language it is universally, but wrongly, described as a feminine. Another verb substantive (Skr. 4 bhd) has also survived, generally in the form hai or hui/ai for bhavati. In AMg. and M. we also have bhavai pretty frequently, and the same form also occurs, but less often, in S and Mg. Its usual past participle is hria- or Mg. hzida-, S. bhrida- The forms are given here as they are important when the history of the Tertiary Prakrits comes under consideration. These two verbs substantive make periphrastic tenses with other participles, and, in the case of the past participles and gerundive's of transitive verbs (both of which are passive in signification), the agent or subject is put into the instrumental case, the participle being used either personally or impersonally, as in the tertiary languages. Thus, léna girivani diplha, by him a mountain was seen, 1§ .e. he saw a mountain; léna padivanmuh, it was acknowledged by him, he acknowledged. The gerundive, or future passive participle, is also used impersonally in the case of intransitive verbs, as in d12ra1h gantawarh, it is to be gone far, we must go far.

Besides the participles, the infinitive and the indeclinable participle (gerund) have also survived. So also the passive voice, conjugated in the same tenses as the active, and generally with parasmaipada terminations. The causal has been already mentioned. There are also numerous denominative verbs (many of them onomatopoeic), and a good supply of examples of frequentative and desiderative bases, mostly formed, with the necessary phonetic modifications, as in Skr. The present participle in the parasmaipada ends in -anta- (-enta-), declined according to the a-declension, and in the atmanépada in -mana-. The termination -(i)ta- of the Skr. The imperative similarly follows the Skr. imperative. The S. second person singular is generally puccha, while the Outer languages often have a form corresponding to pucchéhi. The base of the optative is generally formed by adding -ejja- in the Outer languages and -éa- in § .'; thus, S. pucchéam, others pucchejjdmi, &c., may I ask. The Skr. future termination -'isya- is represented by -israor -ihi-; thus, pucchisszimi or pucchihimi, I shall ask. Prakrit Literature:-The great mass of Prakrit literature is devoted to the Taina religion, and, so far as it is known, is described under the head of JAINS. Here it is Litemwre sufficient to state that the oldest Taina satms were in Ardhamagadhi, while the non-canonical books of the Svétambara sect were in a form of Maharastri, and the canon of the Digambaras appears to have been in a form of Sauraséni. Besides these religious works, Prakrit also appears in secular literature. In artificial lyric poetry it is pre-eminent. The most admired work is the Sattasai (Sapta§ aptikd), compiled at some time between the 3rd and 7th centuries A.D. by Hala. The grace and poetry of this collection, in which art most happily succeeds in concealing art, has rarely been exceeded in literature of its kind. It has had numerous imitators, both in Sanskrit and in the modern vernaculars, the most famous of which is the Satsai of Bihari Lal'(17th century A.D.). Hala's work 'is important, not only on its own account, but also as showing the existence of a large Prakrit literature at the time when it was compiled. Most of this is now lost. There are some scholars (including the present writer) who believe that Sanskrit literature owes more than is generally admitted to works in the vernacular, and that even the Mahabharata first took its form as a folk-epic in an early Prakrit, and was subsequently translated into Sanskrit, in which language it was further manipulated, added to, and received its final shape. In literary Prakrit we have two important specimens of formal