Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/312

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the O. Fr. phrase rnettre en present a quelqz/nn, to bring something into the presence of a person, to offer, give. The legal formal phrase “ these presents ” is common, especially in the form “ know all men by these presents, ” as an opening to a deed, more particularly to a deed-poll which cannot be referred to as an “ indenture.” The phrase “these present words, documents, writings, ” &c. is an adaptation of a similar phrase in O.Fr. ces present es (sc. ettres). As ecclesiastical terms “ to present ” or “ presentation ” are used of the “ presenting ” or nomination by the patron to the bishop of the person chosen by him to fill a vacant benefice. When the bishop is patron he does not “ present, ” but “ collates.” “ Presentiment, ” foreboding, the feeling of something impending, must be distinguished in etymology; it is derived from the Lat. praesentire, to perceive beforehand.

PRESENTATIONISM (from Lat. prae-esse, praesens, present), a philosophical term used in various senses deriving from the general sense of the term “ presentation.” According to G. F. Stout (cf. Manual of Psychology, i. 57), presentations are “whatever constituents or our total experience at any moment directly determine the nature of the object as it is perceived or thought of at that moment.” In Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy, vol. ii., a presentation is “ an object in the special form under which it is cognized at any given moment of perceptual or ideational process.” This, the widest definition of the term, due largely to Professor James Ward, thus includes both perceptual and ideational processes. The term has, indeed, been narrowed so as to include ideation, the correlative “representation ” being utilized for ideal presentation, but in general the wider use is preferred. When the mind is cognizing an object, the object “presents” itself to the senses or to thought in one of a number of different forms (e.g. a picture is a work of art, a saleable commodity, a representation of a house, &c.). Presentation is thus essentially a cognitive process. Hence the most important use of the term “presentationism,” which is defined by Ward, in Mind, N.S. (1893), ii. 58, as “a doctrine the gist of which is that all the elements of psychical life are primarily and ultimately cognitive elements.” This use takes precedence of two others: (1) that of Hamilton, for presentative as opposed to representative theories of knowledge, and (2) that of some later writers who took it as equivalent to phenomenon (q.v.). Ward traces the doctrine in his sense to Hume, to whom the mind is a “kind of theatre” in which perceptions appear and vanish continually (see Green and Grose edition of the Treatise, i. 534). The main problem is as to whether psychic activity is “presented” or not. Ward holds that it is not presented or presentable save indirectly.

For the problems connected with Presentation and Presentationism see especially the article Psychology and authorities there quoted.

PRESIDENCY, an administrative unit of the Indian empire. The word is derived from the title of president or chief of the council of a principal factory under the early East India Company -a title which lasted until' governors were appointed under act of parliament in 1784. It thence came to be applied to the three original provinces of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay. It is now restricted to Madras and Bombay, in distinction to the lieutenant-governorships. In Anglo-Indian usage, “presidency” was also applied to the capital city as opposed to the country beyond, termed the “mofussil”; and this usage lingers in such phrases as “presidency town,” “presidency magistrate,” and “ presidency college.”

PRESIDENT (Fr. president, from Lat. praesidens, post-Augustan Lat. for praeses, director, ruler, from praesidere, to sit in front of, preside), a style or title of various connotation, but always conveying the sense of one who presides. In classical Latin the title praeses, or president, was given to all governors of provinces, but was confined in the time of Diocletian to the procurators who, as lieutenants of the emperor, governed the smaller provinces. In this sense it survived in the middle ages. Du Cange gives instances from the capitularies of Charlemagne of the style praeses provincial as applied to the count; and later examples of praeses, or praesidens, as used of royal seneschals and other officials having jurisdiction under the Crown. In England the word survived late in this sense of royal lieutenant. Thus, John Cowell, in his Interpreter of Words (1607) defines “President” as “used in Common Law for the King's lieutenant in any province or function; as President of Wales, of York, of Berwick. President of the King's Council.” In some of the British North American colonies (New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, South Carolina) there was a president of the council, usually elected by the council; and when Pennsylvania and New Hampshire became states, one member of the Executive Council was called president. The chief (and single) executive head in Delaware, South Carolina and New Hampshire (1784-1792) was called president.

During the revolutionary struggle in America from 1774 onwards, the presiding officer of the Continental Congress was styled “President” and when the present constitution of the United States was framed in 1787 (in effect 1789) the title of President was transferred to the head of the Federal government. “ President ” thus became the accepted style for the elected chief of a modern republic, the example of the United States being followed by the South American republics, by France in 1849, and by Switzerland.

In the simple sense of “ one who presides ” the word “ president ” preserved its meaning alongside the technical use implying royal delegation. In this sense the New English Dictionary quotes its use by Chaucer (Troylus, iv. 185) in 1374. in ecclesiastical terminology praesrdens was sometimes used for the head of cathedral chapters, instead of dean or provost; and it was sometimes the title given to the principal visitor of monasteries, notably in the reformed congregation of Cluny (Du Cange). In the United Kingdom the heads of many colleges are styled " president, " the title being of considerable antiquity in the case of one college at Cambridge (Queens', founded in 1448) and four at Oxford (St John's, Magdalen, Corpus Christi, Trinity). At five Cambridge colleges (Pembroke, Gonville and Caius, St Catherine's, St John's, Magdalene) the title “ president" is borne by the second in authority, being the equivalent of “ vice master." In the United States “president ” is the usual style of the head of a college and also of a university wherever this has developed out of a single college. “ President ” is also the style of persons elected to preside over the meetings of learned, scientific, literary and artistic academies and societies, e.g. the president of the Royal Academy (P.R.A.) in London; the title of the president of the Royal Society (P.R.S.) dates from its foundation in 11660. In the United States the style “ president " is also given to the person who presides over the proceedings of financial, commercial and industrial corporations (banks, railways, &c.), in Great Britain usually styled “ chairman, ” but in the case of the Bank of England and certain other banks “ governor."

In Great Britain the title “ president ” is also borne by certain ministers of the Crown and certain judges, and preserves some of the ancient connotation of a royal lieutenancy explained above. Thus the style of “ president ” applied to the heads of the board of agriculture, local government board, board of education, board of trade, &c., which are all committees of the privy council, is derived from that of the lord president of the council, the representative of the king. The presidents of the court of session in Scotland, and of the probate and divorce division, &c. in England, also bear this style ultimately as representatives of the Crown. In France, besides the president of the republic, there are presidents of the senate and of the chamber of deputies. In Germany the word Prdsident is used in most of the English senses of “ president, " e.g. of a corporation, society, assembly or political body. As a judicial title Prdsident is confined to the head of any one of the corporations (Kollegien) on the basis of which the judicial system of the empire is organized (Landgericht, Oberlandesgericht, Reichsgericht), and must be distinguished from that of Vorsitzender (literally also praesidens), i.e. the judge (who may or may not be the Prdsident) selected to preside over a division of the court appointed to try particular cases.,

In Prussia Przisident also retains its old sense of “ governor, ” Oberprzisident being the title of the chief of the administration of a province, Prdsident that of the head of a government district (Regierungsbezirk). The consistories of the established Protestant Church are also presided over by a Prdsident, who is a royal official.

PRESS (through Fr. presse from Lat. pressare, frequentative of prernere, to crush, squeeze, press), a word which appears in English in the 13th and 14th centuries with three particular

1 The style “president ” was in every case exchanged for that of “ governor" within a few years of the proclamation of the independence of the United States. The title “ president ” is no longer used for any governor under the British Crown, but relics of past usage survive in the “ presidencies " of Madras and Bombay.