Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/356

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opposite to its lobes; this anomalous position is generally explained by assuming that an outer whorl of stamens opposite the sepals has disappeared, though sometimes represented by scales as in Samolus and Soldanella. Another explanation is based on the late appearance of the petals in the floral development and their origin from the backs of the primordial of the stamens; it is then assumed that three alternating whorls only are present, namely, sepals, stamens bearing petal-like dorsal outgrowths, and carpels. The superior ovary-half-inferior in Samolus—bears a simple style ending in a capitate entire stigma, and contains a free-central placenta bearing generally a large number of ovules, which are exceptional in the group Gamopetalae in having two integuments. The fruit is a capsule dehiscing by 5 sometimes 10 teeth or valves, or sometimes transversely (a pyxidium) as in Anagallis.

Cross pollination is often favoured by dimorphism of the flower, as shown in species of Primula (fig. 3). The two forms have long and short styles respectively, the stamens occupying corresponding positions half-way down or at the mouth of the corolla-tube; the long-styled flowers have smaller pollen-grains, which correspond with smaller stigmatic papillae on the short styles.

(From Strasburger’s Lehrbuch der Botanik.)

Fig. 3.—Primula sinensis.
L, Long-styled flowers. P, Pollen grains, and N, stigmatic
K, Short-styled flowers.   papillae of long-styled form.
G, Style. p, n, Ditto of short-styled form.
S, Anthers. (P, N, p, n.)

The order is divided into five tribes by characters based on differences in position of the ovules—which are generally semi-anatropous so that the seed is peltate with the hilum in the centre on one side (or ventral), but sometimes, as in Hottania and Samolus, anatropous with the hilum basal—together with the method of dehiscence of the capsule and the relative position of the ovary. The chief British genera are Primula, including P. vulgaris, primrose, P. veris, cowslip, P. elatior, oxlip, and the small alpine species P. farinosa, with mealy leaves; Lysimachia, loose strife, including L. Nummularia, money-wort; Anagallis, pimpernel; and Hottonia, water violet.

PRIMULINE, a dye-stuff containing the thiazole ring system conjointly with a benzene ring.

CH3 CICLOHEXANO.jpg FSlash45.png S  Rangle.svgC·C6H4·NH2(p)
BSlash45.png N 


The primulines are to be considered as derivatives of dehydrothiotoluidine (aminobenzenyltoluylmercaptan), which is obtained when para-toluidine is heated with sulphur for eighteen hours at 180–190° C. and then for a further six hours at 200–220° C. (P. Jacobson, Ber., 1889, 22, p. 333; L. Gatterrnann, ibid. p. 1084). Dehydrothiotoluidine is not itself a dye-stud, but if the heating be carried out at a higher temperature in the presence of more sulphur, then a base is formed, which gives primuline-yellow on sulphonation (A. G. Green, Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1888, 1, p. 194). Primuline-yellow is a mixture of sodium salts and probably contains in the molecule at least three thiazole rings in combination. It is a substantive cotton dye of rather fugitive shade, but can be diazotized on the fibre and then developed with other components, so yielding a series of ingrain colours.

Thioflavine T is obtained by the methylation of dehydrothiotoluidine with methyl alcohol in the presence of hydrochloric acid [German Patent 51738 (1888)]. Thioiflavine S results from the methylation of dehydrothiotoluidine sulphonic acid. This sulphonic acid on oxidation with bleaching powder or with lead peroxide, in alkaline solution yields chloramine yellow, which dyes cotton a beautiful yellow.

PRIMUS, MARCUS ANTONIUS, Roman general, was born at Tolosa in Gaul about A.D. 30–35. During the reign of Nero he was resident in Rome and a member of the senate, from which he was expelled for forgery in Connexion with a will and was banished from the city. He was subsequently reinstated by Galba, and placed in command of the 7th legion in Pannonia. During the civil war he was one of Vespasian's strongest supporters. Advancing into Italy, he gained a decisive victory over the Vitellians at Bedriacum (or Betriacum) in October 69, and on the same day stormed and set fire to Cremona. He then crossed the Apennines, and made his way to Rome, into which he forced an entrance after considerable opposition. Vitellius was seized and put to death. For a few days Primus was virtually ruler of Rome, and the senate bestowed upon him the rank and insignia of a consul. But on the arrival of Licinius Mucianus he was not only obliged to surrender his authority, but was treated with such ignominy that he left Rome. Primus must have been alive during the reign of Domitian, since four epigrams of Martial are addressed to him. Tacitus describes him as brave in action, ready of speech, clever at bringing others into odium, powerful in times of civil war and rebellion, greedy, extravagant, in peace a bad citizen, in war an ally not to be despised.

See Tacitus, Histories, ii., iii., iv.; Dio Cassius lxv. 9–21.

PRINA, GIUSEPPE (1768–1814), Italian statesman. He gave early proofs of rare talent, and after studying at the university of Pavia he passed as doctor of law in 1789. He was a firm adherent of Napoleon Bonaparte, and when Eugène Beauharnais became viceroy of Italy, was appointed minister of finance. Genial in private life, he was harsh and unyielding in his official capacity, and his singular skill in devising fresh taxes to meet the enormous demands of Napoleon's government made him the best-hated man in Lombardy, the more so that, being a Piedmontese, he was regarded as a foreigner. The news of the emperor's forced abdication on the 11th of April 1814 reached Milan on the 16th, and roused hopes of independence. The senate assembled on the 19th and Prina's party moved that delegates should be dispatched to Vienna to request that Eugène Beauharnais should be raised to the throne of a free Italian kingdom. In spite of precautions this fact became public and provoked the formidable riot styled “The battle of the umbrellas” that broke out the next day. A furious mob burst into the senate, pillaged its halls and sought everywhere for the execrated Prina. Not finding him there, the rioters rushed to his house, which they wrecked, and seizing the doomed minister, who was discovered in a remote chamber donning a disguise, during four hours dragged him about the town, until wounded, mutilated, almost torn to pieces, he received his death-blow. The mob then insulted his miserable remains, stuffing stamped-paper into his mouth. These horrors were enacted by day, in a thoroughfare crowded with “respectable” citizens sheltered from the rain by umbrellas. The authorities were passive, and although some courageous persons actually rescued the victim at an early stage and concealed him in a friendly house, the blood-thirsty mob soon discovered his refuge and were about to force an entrance, when the dying man surrendered to save his deliverer's property. The riots directly contributed to the re-establishment of Austrian rule in Milan.

See M. Fabi, Milano ed il ministro Prina (Novara, 1860); F. Lemmi, La Restaurazione austriaca a Milano nel 1814 (Bologna,