10th century many Scottish immigrants settled in the island. A commission appointed in 1860 advised the compulsory purchase of the lands, and their sale in smaller holdings to genuine settlers, but a bill passed with this intent was disallowed by the imperial authorities.
In 1864 a conference to consider the question of maritime union met at Charlottetown. The visit of delegates from Canada widened it into a general conference on federation, from which sprang the Dominion of Canada. Prince Edward Island's local patriotism forced its representatives to withdraw from the later conferences, but the abrogation in 1866 by the United States of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1854, hnancial difficulties connected with the building of an island railway, and the offer of better terms by the Dominion government, brought it into federation in 1873. A bill on the lines of that formerly disallowed was soon afterwards passed, and the land difficulty was finally settled. Since then the main political issues have been the quarrel with the federal government over the construction of a tunnel and the control of the liquor traffic, which has been prohibited but by no means suppressed.
Aurnonrrras.-Sir J. W. Dawson, Acadian Geology (1891); Report of Dr R. W. Ells, Geological Survey (1882-1884); Report of R. Chalmers, Geological Survey (1894); Rev. G. Sutherland, Manual of History of Prince Edward Island (1861); D. Campbell, History of Prince Edward Island (1875); Special Reports on Educational Subjects, vol. iv. (London, 1901); articles in J. C. Hopkins's Canada, an Encyclopaedia (Toronto, 1898-1900). (W. L. G.)
PRINCES' ISLANDS (anc. Dernonesi; Byzantine, Papadonisia; Turkish, Kizil Adalar, or “ Red Islands, ” from the ruddy colour of the rocks), a cluster of nine islands in the Sea of Marmora, forming a caza of the prefecture of Constantinople. They figure in Byzantine history chiefly as places of banishment. A convent in Prinkipo (now a mass of ruins at the spot called Kamares) was a place of exile for the empresses Irene, Euphrosyne, Zoe and Anna Dalassena. Antigone was the prison of the patriarch Methodius, and its chapel is said to have been built by the empress Theodora. In Khalki the monastery of the Theotokos (originally of St John), which since 1831 has been a Greek commercial school, was probably founded by John VI. or VII. Palaeologus, was rebuilt about 1680, and again in the 18th century by Alexander Ypsilanti, hospodar of Moldavia. Close beside it is the tomb of Edward Barton, second English ambassador to the Porte. Hagia Trias (a school of theology since 1844) was rebuilt by the patriarch Metrophanes. On Prote were the monasteries to which Bardanes (Philippicus), Michael I. Rhangabes, Romanus I., Lecapenus and Romanus IV. Diogenes were banished. The islands are a favourite summer resort; four are inhabited and noted for the mildness and salubrity of their climate. Prinkipo (Pilyusa), altitude 655 ft.; Khalki (Chalcilis; Turkish Heibeli), 445 ft.; Prote (Turkish Kinali), 375 ft.; and Antigone (Panormus; Turkish Burgaz Adasi), 500 ft. The buildings on all the islands were injured by the earthquake of 1894, especially the naval college, and monastery of St George on Khalki, and the monastery of Christ on Prinkipo. The population is about 10, 500, half being Greek. Khalki contains an Ottoman naval school and Greek theological and commercial colleges.
See G. Schlumberger, Les Iles des Princes (Paris, 1884); A. Grisebach, Rumelien and Brussa (Gottingen, 1839).
PRINCETON, a city and the county-seat of Gibson county, Indiana, U.S.A., about 27 m. N. of Evansville. Pop. (1900), 6041, 628 being of negro descent and 198 foreign-born; (1910) 6443. It is served by the Evansville & Terre Haute and the Southern railways (the latter of which has shops here), and by the Evansville & Southern Indiana traction line (electric). It has a considerable trade in oil and coal and in the agricultural products of the surrounding region, and has various manufactures. Princeton was first settled in 1814, and was chartered as a city in 1884.
PRINCETON, a borough of Mercer county, New Jersey, on Stony Brook, and the Delaware & Raritan canal, 49 rn. S.W. of New York City. Pop. (1905) 6029; (1910) 5136. Princeton is served by the Pennsylvania railroad. and by two electric lines to Trenton (IO m.), passing through Lawrenceville (in Lawrence township; until 1816 called Maidenhead; pop., 2522 in 1910), the seat of the Lawrenceville school (1882), for boys, which was endowed by the residuary legatees of John Cleve Green (1800-1875), and is probably the first endowed secondary school for boys in the Middle States.
Princeton is situated 210 ft. above sea-level, and the county to the east, north and west is rocky and hilly. The borough is the seat of Princeton University (q.'v.), and of “The Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, ” commonly known as Princeton Theological Seminary, which was opened in 1812, and was chartered in 1824. The seminary was for one year under the sole care of Archibald Alexander (q.'v.), and among its teachers and representative theologians have been Samuel Miller (1769-1850), who was professor of ecclesiastical history and church government here (1813-1849), Charles Hodge, Joseph Addison Alexander and James Waddel Alexander, William Henry Green, Archibald Alexander Hodge, Francis L. Patton, who became president in 1902 and Benjamin -B. Warfield (b. 1851), professor of didactic and polemic theology from 1887. Under such leaders Princeton theology has been distinctly conservative, supporting the old standards of the Westminster Confession and Catechisms. The seminary is well endowed, so that there is no charge for tuition or room rent; among its principal benefactors were James Lenox (1800-1880), Robert Leighton Stuart (1806-1882), his widow and his brother Alexander (1810-1879), John Cleve Green, mentioned above, and Mrs Mary J. Winthrop (d. 1902). It has a fine campus south-west of the business centre of the borough; in the Lenox Library and the Lenox Reference Library, built in 1843 and 1879 respectively, and gifts of James Lenox, there were 82,200 bound volumes and 31,500 pamphlets in 1909; Stuart Hall (1876) contains lecture-rooms; Miller Chapel is the place of worship; and the three dormitories are Alexander Hall (the “ Old Seminary ”), first used for this purpose in 1817, Brown Hall, built in 1864-1865, and Hodge Hall (1893). In 1908-1909 the faculty numbered 16 and the students 153, of whom 8 were fellows and 17 graduate students.
Princeton became in 1897 the home of Grover Cleveland, who died there; and from 1898 until his death it was the residence of Laurence Hutton (1843-1904), a well-known writer on the history of the stage. Besides its fine residences and buildings of the seminary and of the university, the only notable buildings are the handsome Princeton Inn, about midway between the campus of the university and that of the seminary, and “ Morven, ” the homestead of the Stocktons, built in the first decade of the 18th century. In the' Princeton Cemetery are buried presidents and professors of the university.
The first settlers were the companions of Richard Stockton, the grandfather of Richard Stockton, signer of the Declaration of Independence. The removal hither in 1756 from Newark of the College of New Jersey, later Princeton University, gave the place its first educational prominence. At the time of the War of Independence town and gown were both strongly patriotic. The first state legislature of New Jersey met here on the 27th of August 1776; and in Nassau Hall, the first of the college buildings, erected in 1 7 54-17 56, which was then the largest edifice in the colonies, the Continental Congress sat from the 30th of June to the 4th of November 1783, and on the 31st of October Congress received the news of the signature of the definitive treaty of peace with Great Britain. After the battle of Trenton Cornwallis's troops were hurried to that place, three regiments and three companies of light-horse being left at Princeton when the main body, on the 2nd of January 1777, passed through. Washington, unable to retreat or to meet the British attack, turned Cornwallis's left flank and advanced on the weak garrison at Princeton. On the 3rd a force under Gen. Hugh Mercer (c. 1720-1777), ordered to destroy the Stony Brook bridge, and so cut off escape to Trenton, met two of the three regiments, led by Lieut.-Colonel Charles Mawhood, near the bridge, and, though doing great execution with its rifles at a distance, was unable, being unequipped with bayonets, to hold its ground