Marseilles, 1858). The region comprised between the Rhone and the Var seems to have been particularly fond of representations of this sort, to judge by the entries in the local records (see Romania xxvii. 400). At the close of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries many mysteries were played in that part of Dauphiné which corresponds to the present department of Hautes-Alpes. Five mysteries of this district, composed and Played somewhere about 1500 (the mysteries of St Eustace, of St Andrew, of St Pons, of SS Peter and Paul and of St Anthony of Vienne), have come down to us, and have been edited by Abbé Fazy (1883), the four others by Canon P. Guillaume (1883-1888). The influence of the contemporary French sacred drama may to some extent be traced in t em.
Prose.-Prose composition in the south of France belongs to a comparatively late stage of literary development; and the same remark applies to the other Romanic countries, particularly to northern France, where prose hardly comes into fashion till the beginning of the 13th century, the prose of the preceding century being little else than translations of the books of the Bible (especially the Psalter).
As early as the 12th century we find in Languedoc sermons, whose importance is more linguistic than literary (Sermons du XII” siécle en vieux Provencal, ed. by F. Armitage, Heilbronn, 1884). About the same time, in Limousin, were translated chapters xiii.-xvii. of St John's Gospel (Bartsch, Chrestomaihie provengale). Various translations of the New Testament and of some parts of the Old have been done in Languedoc and Provence during the 13th and 14th centuries (see S. Berger, “ Les Bibles provengales et vaudoises, " Romania xviii. 353; and “Nouvelles recherche sur les Bibles provencales et catalanes, " ibid. xix. 505). The Provengal prose rendering of some lives of saints made in the early part of the 13th century (Revue des langues romanes, 1890) is more interesting from a purely linguistic than from a literary point of view. To the 13th century belong certain lives of the troubadours intended to be prefixed to, and to explain, their poems. Many of them were written before 1250, when the first anthologies of troubadour poetry were compiled; and some are the work of the troubadour Hugh of Saint Circq. Some were composed in the north of Italy, at a time when the troubadours found more favour east of the Alps, than in their own country. Considered as historical documents these biographies are of a very doubtful value. Most of them are mere works of fiction, written by men who had no data except such in formations as they derived from the songs they had to explain and which they often misunderstood. To the same period must be assigned Las Razos de trobar of the troubadour Raimon Vidal de Besalu (an elegant little treatise touching on various points of grammar and the poetic art), and also the Donatz proensals of Hugh Faidit, a writer otherwise unknown, who drew up his purely grammatical work at the request of two natives of northern Italy. A remarkable work, both in style and thought, is the Life of St Douceline, who died in 1271; near Marseilles, and founded an order of Beguines. In the I4t century compositions in prose grew more numerous. Some rare lccal chronicles may be mentioned, the most interesting being that of Mascaro, which contains the annals of the town of Béziers from 1338 to 1390. Theological treatises and pious legends translated from Latin and French also increase in number. The leading prose-work of this period is the treatise on grammar, poetry and rhetoric known by the name of Leys d'amors. It was composed in Toulouse, shortly before 1350, by a group of scholars, and was intended to fix the rules of the language with a view to the promotion of a poetical renaissance. For this purpose an academy was founded which awarded prizes in the shape of flowers to the best compositions in verse. We still possess the collection of the pieces crowned by this academy during the 14th century, and a large part of the 15th (Flors del gay saber). Unfortunately they are rather academic than poetic. The Leys d'amors, which was to be the starting-point and rule of the new poetry, is the best production of this abortive renaissance. The decay of Provengal literature, caused by political circumstances, arrived too soon to allow of a full development of prose. This accounts, in some measure for the complete absence of historical compositions. There is nothing to compare with Villehardouin or ]oinville in northern France, or with Ramon Muntaner in Catalonia. The 14th and 15th centuries were in no respect a prosperous period for literature in the south of France. In the 15th century people began to write French both in verse and prose; and from that time Provengal literature became a thing of the past. From the 16th century such poetry as is written in the vernacular of southern France (Auger Gaillard, La Bellaudiera, Goudelin, d'Astros, &c.), is entirely dependent on French influence. The Connexion with ancient Provengal literature is entirely broken.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-Fauriel, Histoire de la poésie provengale (Paris, 1846, 3 vols. 8vo), is quite antiquated. Not only are three-fourths of the works in Provengal poetry ignored, but the very idea of the book is vitiated by the author's system (now abandoned), based on the supposition that in the south of France there was an immense epic literature. The articles on the troubadours in the Histoire littéraire de la France, by Ginguene, E. David, &c., must be consulted with extreme caution F. Diez's Die Poesie der Troubadours (Zwickau, 1827, 8vo; new ed by Bartsch, 1883) and his Leben und Werke der Troubadours (Zwickau, 1829, 8vo; new ed. by Bartsch, 1882) are of great excellence for the time at which they appeared. |~ A. Restori's Letteratura provenzale (Milan, Hoepli, 1891), though very short and not free from oversights, gives a generally correct view of the subject. For the history of Provengal literature in Spain, see Mila y F ontanals, De los Troivadores en Espana (Barcelona, 1861, 8vo); for Italy, Cavedoni, Ricerche storiche intorno ai trovatari provenzali (Modena, 1844, 8vo); A. Thomas, Francesco Barberino et la liltérature provencale en Ilalie (Paris, 1883, 8vo)'; O. Schultz, “ Die Lebensverhaltnisse der italienischen Trobadors, " in Zeits. fur romanische Philologie (1883). For the bibliography consult especially Bartsch, Grundriss zur Geschichle der prooenzalischen Literatur (Elberfeld, 1872, 8vo). For texts the reader may be referred to Raynouard, Choix de poésies origin ales des Troubadours (1816-182I, 6 vols. 8vo), and Lexique roman, on dict. de la langue des troubadours, of which vol. i. (1838) is entirely taken up with texts; and Rochegude, Parnasse occitanien (Toulouse, 1819, 8vo). All the pieces published by Raynouard and Rochegude have been reprinted without amendment by Mahn, Die Werke der Troubadours in provenz. Sprache (Berlin, 8vo, vol. i. 1846, ii. 1855~1864, iii. 1880; vol. iv. contains an edition of the troubadour Guiraut Riquier, 1853). The same editor's Gedichte der T troubadours (Berlin, 1856-1873) is a collection conspicuous for its want of order and of accuracy (see Romania iii. 303). Among editions of individual troubadours may be mentioned: Peire Vidal's Lieder, by Karl Bartsch (Berlin, 1857, Izmo.); Les Derniers troubadours de la Provence, by Paul Meyer (Paris, 1871, 8vo); Der Troubadour J aufre Rudel, sein Leben und seine Werke, by A. Stimming (Kiel, 1873, Svo); Bertran de Born, sein Leben und seine Werke, by A. Stimming (Halle, 1879, 8vo; revised and abridged edition, Halle, 1892); another edition, by A. Thomas (Toulouse, 1888, 8vo); Guilhem Figueira, ein provenzalischer T troubadour, by E. Levy (Berlin, 1880, 8vo); Das Leben und die Lieder des Troubadours Peire Rogier, by Carl Appel (Berlin, 1882, 8vo); La vita e le opere del tr ova tore Arnaldo Daniella, by U. A. Canello (Halle, 1883, 8v0); O. Schultz, Die Briefe des T robadors Raimbaut de Vaqueiras an Bonifaz I., Markgrafen von Monferral (Halle a. S., 1893); Italian edition (Florence, 1898); Cesare de Lollis, Vita e poesie di Sordello di Goito (Halle a. S., 1896); ]. Coulet, Le Troubadour Guilhem Montanhagol (Toulouse, 1898); R. Zenker, Die Lieder von Peires von Auvergne (Erlangen, 1900); ]. ]. Salverda De Grove, Le Troubadour Bertran d'Aiamanon (Toulouse, 1902); G. Bertoni, I Trovatori minori di Genova (Dresden, 1903), and Rambertino Buvalelli, tr oval ore bolognase (Dresden, 1908, 8v0); A. éeanroy, “Les Poésies de Gavandan " in Romania, vol. xxxiv. (aris, 1905). Concerning the music of the Troubadors, see J. B. Beck, Die Melodien der Troubadours (Strasburgh, 1908). Among editions of Provengal works of a miscellaneous kind are: Bartsch, ' Denkmaler der provenzalischen Literatur (Stuttgart, 1856, 8vo); H. Suchier, Denkmdler der provenz. Literatur und Sprache, vol. i. 8vo (Halle, 1883); Paul Meyer, La Chanson de la croisade contre les Albigeois (2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1875-1879); idem, Daurel et Beton, chanson de geste provengale (Paris, 1880, 8vo); idem, Le Roman de Flamenco (Paris, 1865, 8vo; 2nd ed., I OI); idem., Guillaume de la Barre, roman d'adventures par Arnaut Vi¢?al de Castelnaudari (Paris, 1895, 8vo); E. Stengel, Die beiden altesten provenzal. Grammatiken, Lo Donatz proensals und Las Razos de trobar (Marburg, 1878, 8vo); Le Brefuairi d'amor de MaQ're Ermengaud, published by the Archaeological Society of Béziers (2 vols. 8vo, Béziers, 1862-1880); A. L. Sardou, La Vida de Sant Honorat, légende en vers provengaux par Raymond Feraud (Nice, 1875, 8vo); Noulet and Chabaneau, Deux manuscripts provengaux du X I V” siécle (Montpellier, 1888, 8vo); Albanés, La Vie de Sainte Douceline (Marseilles, 1879, 8vo). Documents and dissertations on various points of Prcvengal literature will be found in almost all the volumes of Romania (Paris, in progress since 1872, 8vo), and the Revue des langues romanes (Montpellier, in progress since 1870, 8vo). See also the other journals devoted in Germany and Italy to the Romanic languages, passim. (P. M.)
MODERN PROVENÇAL LITERATURE-Literature in the south of France never died out entirely. Indeed, We have a link which, though too much importance may easily be attached to it, yet undoubtedly connects the products of the troubadours with the Provengal poetry of the present day. The Academy of Toulouse, founded in 1324, was flourishing in the 14th century, and, after many vicissitudes, is flourishing still. [The poets crowned by this body between 1324 and 1498 stand in the same relation to the troubadours as the M eislcrsingcr do to the Minnesdnger: academic correctness takes the place of inspiration. The institution flourished, even to the extent of establishing branches in Catalonia and Majorca; and in 1484, when its prosperity was threatened, a semi-fabulous person, Clémence Isaure, is said to have brought about a revival by instituting fresh prizes. The town of Toulouse never ceased to supply funds
1 In accordance with general usage, we are employing the term Provencal for the whole of the south of France, save where special reservation IS made.