of the “ bruisers, ” as they were called, was unable to “ come to the scratch, ” i.e. the middle of the ring, at the call of the referee at the beginning of a new round. Each round ended when one fighter fell or was knocked or thrown to the ground, but a pugilist “ going down to avoid punishment, ” i.e. without being struck by the opponent, was liable to forfeit the fight. Wrestling played an important role in the old prize-ring, and a favourite method of weakening an adversary was to throw him heavily and then fall upon him, seemingly by accident, as the manoeuvre, if done intentionally, was foul. The fighting was of the roughest description, low tricks of all kinds being practised when the referee's attention was diverted, 'gouging out an adversary's eye being by no means unknown. Until 1795 pugilists wore long hair, but during a fight in that year Jackson caught Mendoza by his long locks and held him down helpless while he hit him. This was adjudged fair by the referee, with the result that prize-hghters have ever since cropped their head. Nevertheless there were rules which no fighter dared to overstep, such as those against kicking, hitting below the belt, and striking a man when he had fallen. From the time of Cribb the English champions were Tom Spring (1824), Jem Ward (1825), Jem Burke (1833), W. Thompson, called “ Bendigo” (1839-1845), Ben Caunt (1841), W. Perry, the “Tipton Slasher" (1850), Harry Broome (1851), Tom Sayers (1857-1860), Jem Mace (1861-1863), Tom King (1863), and again Mace, until 1872.
In America boxing began to be popular about the beginning of the 10th century. The first recognized national champion was Tom Hyer (1841-1848), who was followed by James Ambrose (born in Ireland), called “ Yankee Sullivan ”; John Morrissey (afterwards elected to the United States Congress); John C. Heenan; Tom Allen (of England); Jem Mace (of England); J. Kilrain; John .L. Sullivan (1880-1891); J. J. Corbett (1892-1897); Robert Fitzsimmons (1897-1900) (born in Cornwall); James J. Jeffries. The defeat of the last named by the negro Jack Johnson in 1910 caused a great sensation. What is still the most celebrated prize-fight of modern times took place at Farnborough in April 1860, between Tom Sayers and the huge youthful American pugilist J. C. Heenan, the “ Benicia Boy, ” who had been defeated in America by Morrissey, but had succeeded to the championship upon the latter's retirement. The English champion was a much smaller and lighter man than his challenger, a fact which increased the popular interest in the f1ght.~ Although the local English. authorities endeavoured to prevent it taking place, Heenan complaining that he had “been chased out of eight counties, ” the ring at Farnborough was surrounded by a company containing representatives of the highest classes, a.nd the exaggerated statement was made that "Parliament had been emptied to patronize a prize-fight.” The battle lasted for 2 hours and 20 minutes, during which Heenan, owing to his superiority in weight and reach, seemed to have the advantage, although nearly blinded by Sayers's hard straight punches. During one of the opening rounds a tendon in Sayers's right forearm was ruptured in guarding, and he fought the rest ~of the battle with a pluck which roused the enthusiasm of the spectators. Heenan had neglected to harden his hands properly, with the result that they soon swelled to unnatural proportions, rendering his blows no more effective than if he had worn boxing-gloves. Nevertheless towards the close of the fight Heenan repeatedly threw Sayers violently, and held him on the ropes enclosing the ring, which, just as the police interfered, were cut by persons who asserted that Heenan was on the point of strangling Sayers. In spite of the indecisive outcome of the battle both hghters claimed the victory, but the match was officially adjudged a draw. This was the last great prize-fight with bare fists on English soil, as public opinion was aroused, and orders were given to the police thenceforth to regard prize tights as illegal, as tending to a “ breach of the peace.” Several surreptitious prize-fights did indeed occur within a. few years after the Sayers-Heenan battle; but more than once, notably in the fight between Heenan and Tom King, one of the participants was “ doctored, ” i.e. drugged, and this lack of fairplay, added to the brutality of fist-fights, gave the death-blow to pugilism of the old kind. In its place came fighting and boxing with padded gloves, small ones weighing about 4 oz. being used by professionals, while amateurs, who boxed and sparred rather than fought (see BOXING), made use of larger and softer gloves.
An added impetus was -given to boxing as well as pugilism in 1866 by the founding of the “ Amateur Athletic Club ” by John C. Chambers, who, assisted by the marquess of Queensberry, drew up the code of rules for competitions still in vogue and called after that nobleman, who, in 1867, presented cups for the amateur championships at the different weights. These rules prohibit all rough and unfair fighting, as well as Wrestling, and divide a match into rounds of three (or two) minutes each, with half a minute rest between the rounds. It is a matterof agreement in professional battles whether in “ breaking away” after a clinch blows may be struck or not. When a contestant is knocked down (a man on one knee is technically down) he is allowed ten seconds, usually counted aloud by the referee, in which to rise and renew the fight. Should he be unable to do so he is “ counted out ” and loses the match. See Fistiana (London, 1868); American Fistiana (New York, 1876); Egan, Boxiana (London, 1818-1824); Fencing, Boxing and Wrestling, in the Badminton Library (London, 1889); R. G. A. Winn, Boxing, Isthmian Library (London, 1897).
PUGIN, AUGUSTUS WELBY NORTHMORE (1812–1852), English architect, son of Augustus Charles Pugin (1762–1832), a Frenchman by birth who settled in London as an architectural draughtsman and had several pupils who rose to fame, was born in Store Street, Bedford Square, on the rst of March 1812. After an education at Christ's Hospital he entered his father's office, where he displayed a remarkable talent for drawing. His father was for many years engaged in preparing a large series of works on the Gothic buildings of England, almost, if not quite, the first illustrated with accurate drawings of medieval buildings; and the son's early youth was mostly occupied in making minute measured drawings for these books. In this way his enthusiasm for Gothic art was irst aroused. All through his life, both in England and during many visits to Germany and France, he continued to make great numbers of drawings and sketches, in pen and ink or with sepia monochrome, perfect in their delicacy and precision of touch, and masterpieces of skilful treatment of light and shade. At first he acted as assistant in his father's work, and his own independent eiorts to obtain business were not very successful. In 1827 he was employed to design furniture in a medieval style for Windsor Castle; and in 1831—the year he married his first wife, Ann Garnett, who died in childbirth a year later—he designed scenery for the new opera of Kenilworth at Her Majesty's theatre. But he got into money difficulties, and soon after his marriage he was imprisoned for debt. When he came out he again incurred serious losses over an attempt to start a shop for supplying architectural accessories of his own designing, which he had to give up. But after his second marriage in 1833 to Louisa Burton (d. 1844), and his reception into the Roman Catholic Church shortly afterwards, he began to obtain more steady architectural practice and by degrees he acquired the reputation which has made his name stand foremost among those responsible for the English Gothic revival (see Architecture: Modern: “ The Gothic Revival ”). No man had so thoroughly mastered the principles of the Gothic style in its various stages, both in its leading lines and in the minutest details of its mouldings and carved enrichments. In 1837–1843 he assisted Sir Charles Barry by working out the details of the designs for the new Houses of Parliament at Westminster; and though his exact share in the designs was subsequently the subject of bitter controversy after both he and Barry were dead, there is no doubt that, while he was working as Barry's paid clerk, a great deal in the excellence of the details was due to him and to his training of the masons and carvers. His conversion to Roman Catholicism, while part and parcel of his