when passing the promontory which bore her name (the Punta Campanella at Sorrento). It is uncertain what official had the charge of the corn supply at Puteoli under the Republic, but in the time of Antoninus Pius we find an Aug(usti) dis(pensator) a frumento Puteolis et Ostis dependent no doubt on a procurator annonae of the two ports.
Claudius established here, as at Ostia, a cohort of vigiles as a fire-brigade. Brundusium was similarly protected. There was also a station of the imperial post, sailors of the imperial fleet at Misenum being apparently employed as couriers. The artificial mole was probably of earlier date than the reign of Augustus (possibly 2nd century B.C.); and by that time at any rate there were docks large enough to contain the vessels employed in bringing the obelisks from Egypt. Remains of the piles of the mole still exist, and are popularly known as Caligula's Bridge, from the mistaken idea that they belong to the temporary structure which that emperor flung across the bay from the mole at Puteoli to the shore at Baiae. Inscriptions record repairs to the breakwater by Antoninus Pius in 139 in fulfilment of a promise made by Hadrian before his death. Alaric (410), Genseric (455) and Totila (545) successively laid Puteoli in ruins. The restoration effected by the Byzantines was partial and short-lived.
The original town of Puteoli was situated on the narrow hill of the Castello. Scanty traces of fortifications of the Roman period seem to have come to light in recent tunnelling operations. The streets of the old town probably, as at Naples, preserve the ancient alignment. There are also traces of the division of the lands in the immediate vicinity of the town into squares by parallel paths (decumani and cardines) at regular intervals of 1111 Roman feet, postulating as the basis of the division a square with a side of 10,000 Roman feet, divided into 81 smaller squares—an arrangement which could not have existed at Puteoli, and must have arisen elsewhere. It is remarkable as being contrary to Roman surveyors' practice, according to which the basis of division is the intersection at right angles of the cardo and decumanus, which would give an even (not an odd) number of smaller squares. The size of the ancient town at its largest can be roughly fixed by its tombs. Inscriptions show that it was divided into regiones. The market hall (macellum) (compare the similar buildings at Pompeii and elsewhere), generally known as the temple of Serapis, from a statue of that deity found there, was excavated in 1750. It consisted of a rectangular court surrounded by chambers on the outside and with a colonnade of thirty-six columns of cipollino (Carystian) marble and grey granite. The three columns still standing, some 39 ft. high, belong to a façade of four still higher columns erected in front of the absidal cella or sanctuary, with three niches for statues—no doubt of the protecting deities. The borings of marine shellfish visible in these columns between 11 and 19 ft. from the ground, and the various levels of pavement in the macellum help to indicate, according to Günther's researches (Archaeologia, lvii. 499; Earth Movements in the Bay of Naples, 1903), that the level of the shore fell very slightly during the Roman period, when it was some 20 ft. higher than at present; that it fell more rapidly during the middle ages, was then raised again early in the 16th century (before the upheaval of the Monte Nuovo in 1538) and has since been sinking gradually. In the centre was a round colonnade with sixteen columns of Numidian marble (giallo antlco) now in the theatre of the palace at Caserta. Dubois (op. cit., 286 sqq.) reproduces important drawings and a description made by the architect Caristie in 1820. The well-preserved amphitheatre, the subterranean parts of which below the arena are intact, with a main passage down the centre, a curved passage all round with holes for trap doors in its roof, and numerous small chambers, also with trap doors in their vaulted roofs for admitting the wild beasts, whose cages were on the other side of the curved passage, to the arena, are especially interesting. There were also arrangements for flooding the arena, but these can only have been in use before the construction of the greater part of the subterranean portion with its cages, &c. The whole amphitheatre measures 489 by 381 ft., and the arena 245 by 138 ft. Of the upper portion the interior is well preserved, but very little of the external arcades remains. It was not constructed before the reign of Vespasian, for inscriptions record that it was built by the Colonia Flavia. There was, however, an amphitheatre in the reign of Nero, who himself fought in games given there, and the glass cup of Odemira shows two. A ruin still exists which may be doubtfully attributed to the latter (Dubois, p. 192). Remains of thermae also exist in various places, the mineral springs having been much used in Roman times. The cathedral of S. Proculus (containing the tomb of the musician Pergolesi, d. 1736) is built into a temple of Augustus, erected by L. Calpurnius, 6 columns of which, with their Corinthian capitals, still exist. Other ruins—of a circus, of tombs, &c., exist, and there are also considerable remains of villas in the neighbourhood.
Puteoli was supplied with water by two aqueducts, both subterranean, one of which, bringing water from springs in the immediate neighbourhood, is still in use while the other is a branch from the Serino aqueduct, which wa s prbbably taken to Misenum by Agrippa. Several remains of reservoirs exist; one very large one is now called Piscina di Cardito.
Among the inscriptions one of the most interesting is the letter of the Tyrian merchants resident at Puteoli to the senate of Tyre, written in 174, asking the latter to undertake the payment of the rent of their factory, and the reply of the senate promising to do so. (This is the interpretation adopted by Dubois, pp. 86, 92, following Dittenberger.) We find other Eastern merchants resident here—merchants from Heliopolis, Berytus (Beirut), Nabataea, Palestine, and from Asia Minor, Greece, &c. We find far less trace of commercial relations with the West, though there was considerable importation of commodities from southern Spain—wine, oil, metals, salt fish, &c., while a good deal of pottery was exported to Spain and southern Gaul. We find, indeed, two cases of men who held municipal honours at Puteoli and in the Rhone valley. Puteoli was reached direct by a road from Capua traversing the hills to the north by a cutting (the Montagna Spaccata), which went on to Neapolis, and by the Via Domitiana from Rome and Cumae. There was also a short cut from Puteoli to Neapolis by the tunnel of Pausilipon, made under Augustus. It is not possible to trace the episcopal see of Puteoli with any certainty further back than the beginning of the 4th century. In 305, S. Januarius (S. Gennaro, the patron saint of Naples), bishop of Beneventum, S. Proculus, patron of Puteoli, and others, suffered martyrdom at Puteoli.
See the careful study by C. Dubois, Pouzzoles antique (Paris, 1907) (Bibliothèque des écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome, fasc. 98). (T. As.)
PUTLITZ, GUSTAV HEINRICH GANS, EDLER ZU (1821-1890), German author, was born at Retzien near Perleberg in West Prignitz, on the zoth of March 1821. He studied law at Berlin and Heidelberg, and was attached to the provincial government at Magdeburg from 1846-1848. In 18 53 he married Grafin Elisabeth von Konigsmark, and lived on his estate until 1863, when he became director of the Court theatre at Schwerin. This post he left in 1867, was for a short time chamberlain to the crown prince of Prussia, afterwards the emperor Frederick, and from 1873 to 1889 successfully directed the Court theatre at Karlsruhe. He died at Retzien on the 5th of September 1890. Putlitz made his debut as a writer with a volume of romantic stories, Was sich der Wald erzahlt (18 50), which attained great popularity (fifty editions) and found many imitators; but he was most successful in his comedies, notably Badekuren (1859); Das Herz 'verges sen (1853); and Spiell nicht mit dem Feuer! (1887), while of his narratives Die Alpenbraul (1870) and Walpurgis (1870) are distinguished by refined terseness of style and delicacy of portraiture.
A selection of his works, Aurgewzihlle Werke, was published in 6 vols. in Berlin (1872-1877), and a supplementary volume in 1888; his comedies, Lustspiele, appeared in two, series of 4 vols. each (1851-1860 and 1869-1872). See E. zu Putlitz, Gustav zu Putlitz. Ein Lebensbild aus Briefen (5 vols., 1894'I8Q5).
PUTNAM, ISRAEL (1718-1796), American soldier, was born in Salem Village (now Danvers), Massachussetts, on the 7th of January 1718. His first American ancestor (of the same family as George Puttenham), came from Aston Abbotts, Bucks, and was one of the first settlers of Salem Village. In 1740 he removed to a farm in the present townships of Pomfret and Brooklyn, Connecticut. Here in the winter of 1742-1743 he went down into a wolf den (still shown in Pomfret) and at close quarters killed a huge wolf. Putnam took an active part in the French and Indian War, enlisting as a private in 1755 and rising to the rank of major in March 1758. He was conspicuous for personal courage and for skill in Indian warfare, and was the hero of numerous exploits. In 1764, during Pontiac's conspiracy, he commanded the Connecticut troops (five companies) in the expedition under Colonel John Bradstreet for the relief of Detroit. He was a. prominent member of the Sons of Liberty and a leader in the opposition to the Stamp Act; was elected to the general assembly of Connecticut in 1766 and 1767; and increased his political influence by opening a tavern, “ The General Wolfe, ” in Brooklyn, Conn. In August 1774, as chairman of the committee of correspondence for Brooklyn parish, he went with the committee's message and contributions to the Boston Patriots; and in October became lieutenant-colonel of the rrth regiment of Connecticut militia. News of the fighting at