Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/728

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712
QUARREL—QUARRYING

of the Life of Man (1638); Enchyridion, containing Institutions Divine and Moral (1640-41), a collection of four “centuries " of miscellaneous aphorisms; Observations concerning Princes and States upon Peace and Warre (1642), and Boanerges and Barnabas-Wine and Oyle for … afflicted Soules (1644-46), both of which are collections of miscellaneous reflections; three violent Royalist tracts (1644), The Loyall Convert, The Whipper Whipt, and The New Dislemper, reissued in one volume in 1645 with the title of The Profest Royalist; his guarrell with the Times, and some elegies. Solomon's Recantation . . (1645) contains a memoir by his widow. Other posthumous works are The She heards' Oracles (1646), a second part of Boanerges and Barnabas 6646), a broadside entitled A Direfull Anathema against Peace-haters (1647), and an interlude, The Virgin Widow (1649).

An edition of the Emblems (Edinburgh, 1857) was embellished with new illustrations by C. H. Bennett and W. A. Rogers These are reproduced in the complete edition (1874) of Quarles included in the “Chertsey Worthies Library” by Dr A. B Grosart, who provides an introductory memoir and an appreciation which greatly overestimates Quarles's value as a poet.


QUARREL. (1) (Through Fr. quenelle from Lat. querela, complaint), originally a complaint against a person, particularly a legal accusation or charge, hence a ground or cause for complaint or anger, or, more generally, an outbreak of anger or violent dispute. (2) (Through O. Fr. quarrel or quarel, from med. Lat. quadrellus, diminutive of quadrus, square), a heavy short bolt or arrow with a square head, used in a cross-bow or arbalest. In architecture this term (and also the doublet “ quarry ”) is applied to any square-shaped opening, in the Beauchamp Roll to the qua trefoils in Perpendicular windows, sometimes to squares of paving, but most commonly to the lozenge-shaped pieces of glass in lead easements (see Glass, Stained).


QUARRY. (1) (Through Fr. from med. Lat. quareia for quadraria; quadrare, to square or hew stone), a place from which stones are dug, the term being usually confined to a place where such operation is carried on in the open air, as opposed to a “ mine ” (see Quarrying). (2) (Through O. Fr. cuirée, cuir, skin, leather, Lat. corium; cf. mod. Fr. curée, spoils), properly certain parts of a deer or other beast of chase given as a reward to the hounds and placed upon the hide of the animal, also parts of a bird given similarly to a hawk or falcon. The word is thus applied to the animal hunted or the bird killed by the hawk, and generally to any object of the chase.


QUARRYING, the art of winning or obtaining from the earth's crust the various kinds of stone used in construction, the operation being, in most cases, conducted in open workings.

According to their composition, building stones are broadly classed as granites, sandstones, limestones and slates. Under the first of these heads is included a number of crystalline rock species, such as granite, syenite, gneiss, &c., which to the geologist are quite distinct, but which in commerce are all spoken Kinds of
stone
quarried.
of as granite. They are chiefly composed of one or more minerals of the felspar group mingled with one or more of the micas or with hornblende, and usually contain quartz. Sandstones are chiefly composed of fragments of quartz cemented into solid rock by silica and oxide of iron. Of these there are many varieties, including flagstone used for foot-pavements. Limestones consist principally of carbonate of lime. Their chief variations are the crystalline form known as marble and the deposit from mineral springs known as Mexican onyx. Slates are mud stones or shales hardened by heat and pressure, and rendered fissile by the latter agent. Chemically they consist chiefly of hydrous silicate of alumina. Theoretically, granites are massive, and have no bedding or stratification like sandstones and limestones; but all rock masses are usually found to be more or less shattered by movements of the earth's crust which occur as a result of its constant readjustment to the cooling and shrinking interior, so that the rocks are divided by cracks or fissures, which are commonly known as joints. In the massive granites these joints, which usually occur in two or more planes at right angles to one another, are of the greatest importance to the quarry man, as they enable him to separate masses of stone with approximately parallel faces. In gneisses the parallel arrangement of the minerals usually coincides with a direction of easy cleavage, known to quarrymen as the “ rift ”; at right angles to this direction is usually one less easy parting, known as the ” grain.” Sandstones and limestones are stratified rocks which have been formed as sediments in bodies of water; and whether their beds are found in the normal position of horizontality, or whether they have been tilted and folded by earth movements, the direction of easiest separation is coincident with the original planes of sedimentation and parallel to them. This is therefore called the “ rift,” while the “ grain ” is at right angles to it. In gneisses, sandstones and limestones joints also occur; and while frequently convenient for the division of the beds into masses of useful size, they may be a detriment, as when they occur so close together as to fall within the limits of a block available for commercial purposes. In commerce the various kinds of building stone are usually designated by the name of the locality or region in which the quarry is situated. In the case of the more important varieties this geographic name usually conveys to the architect or builder full information concerning the colour, texture and other properties of the material. For example, the names Hallowell or Quincy granite, Medina or Berea sandstone, and Vermont or Tennessee marble, convey in the United States full information to those interested.

The methods of quarrying vary with the composition and hardness of the rocks, their structure, cleavage, and other physical properties; also with the position and character of the deposits or rock-masses. The general purposeMethods
employed.
of the work is to separate the material from its bed in masses of form and size adapted to the intended use. Cutting the stone to accurate dimensions, dressing, rubbing and polishing are subsequent operations not involved in quarrying.

The practice of quarrying consists in uncovering a sufficient surface of the rock by removing superncial soil, sand or clay, or by sinking a shaft or slope, and then with proper tools and, when necessary, with explosives, detaching blocks of form and size adapted to the purpose in view. Frequently the outer portion of the rock has been affected by the action of the weather and other atmospheric agencies, so that it has become discoloured or softened by decay. This weathered material must be removed before stone can be obtained for use. A quarry should, if possible, be opened on a hillside, for in this ease it is usually much easier to dispose of the water which necessarily collects in any deep excavation, and which, if drainage by gravity is not afforded, must be removed by pumping, at considerable expense. As it is generally most convenient to operate on a vertical face of rock, the preliminary work of opening Va quarry is usually directed toward the production of this result; but its accomplishment involves the waste of a certain amount of stone, which must be broken into irregular and useless pieces. The separation of blocks of building stone is effected ordinarily by drilling holes along the outlines of the block to be removed, and then, by exploding blasting-powder in the holes, or by driving wedges into them, exerting sufficient force to overcome the cohesion of the rock and rend it asunder. In many quarries it is found most convenient to separate a large mass and afterwards divide it into blocks of the required size. When the rock is stratified, or has an easily determined “ rift,” the holes are drilled at right angles to the plane of separation. When there is no stratification or “ rift, ” or these natural planes of separation are too far apart, or when the position of the joints is not advantageous, a row of horizontal holes must be drilled into the face or “ breast ” of the quarry, along which separation is effected by the use of wedges. of late at certain American quarries, in a granite which has no rift or direction of ready cleavage, compressed air has been brought into service to effect the separation of extensive layers. A hole is drilled as deep as the desired thickness of the layer to be separated, and a small charge of dynamite is exploded at the bottom of it. This develops a cavity in which a small charge of powder is next exploded, producing a crack or crevice parallel to the surface of the rock. A pipe for conveying compressed air is now sealed into the opening, and gradually increasing pressure is introduced. This results in the gradual extension of the crevice developed by