Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/758

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page needs to be proofread.

eminence rising abruptly above Cork Harbour. Pop. (1901) 7909. It is 12 m. E.S.E. of Cork and 177 m. S.W. of Dublin by the Great Southern & Western railway. It consists chiefly of terraces rising one above another with wide streets and handsome houses. On account of the mildness of the climate it is frequented by visitors both in summer and winter. Previous to the American War, Cove of Cork was a small fishing village, but it subsequently increased rapidly. It received its present name on the occasion of the visit in 1849 of Queen Victoria, being her first landing-place in Ireland. The town is governed by an urban district council. The harbour, which is defended by the Carlisle and Camden Forts at its entrance, and by Fort Westmoreland on Spike Island, can shelter a large fleet. Spike, Rocky andl Haulbowline islands are used in the formation of a government dockyard, which with the adjoining victualling yard covers an area of 55 acres. There is an enclosed basin 9 acres in extent, with 32 ft. 8 in. depth over the sill at high-water spring tides; and a dry dock at its southern end has a length of 408 ft. on the blocks. Queenstown is a port of call for American mail steamers, and the mails are transmitted overland by express trains; it is also a port of embarkation for colonial troops, and a government emigration station. The admiral's flagship is stationed here. The oldest yacht club in the United Kingdom, the Royal Cork (founded in 1720 as the Cork Harbour Water Club), has its headquarters here, with a club-house, and holds an annual regatta. Among the principal buildings are the modern Catholic cathedral of St Colman for the diocese of Cloyne, designed by A. W. Pugin, and the Protestant Episcopal church for the united parishes of Clonmcl and Temple Robin. A fine promenade, over a mile in length, connects Queenstown with Rushbrook, a favourite watering-place. The picturesque shores of the harbour are dotted with country residences and village-resorts, suoh as Crosshaven and Church Bay.

QUELPART (Chai-Ju), an island to the south of Korea, used as a Korean penal settlement. In measures 40 m. from E. to W. and 17 from N. to S. It rises gradually from the seaboard, is heavily wooded and is cleared for cultivation to a height of 2000 ft. There are several crateriform hills, and Hali San (Mount Auckland) has an altitude of 6558 ft. The island is entirely volcanic, and the soil is finely disintegrated lava. Broken black lava forms the beach, and blocks of it are the universal building material. There is no good drinking water. The flora and fauna are scarcely investigated. Pines of three species, junipers, larches, oaks, maples, willows and the Thuja Orientalis have been identified. The known fauna comprise boars, bears, deer, swans, geese, pheasants and quail. The roads are scarcely passable bridle tracks. Quelpart was introduced to European notice by the Dutchman, Hendrik Hamil, who was shipwrecked there in 1653.

The estimated population is 100,000, Korean by race, language and costume. There are about ninety villages. The valleys and slopes are carefully cultivated in fields divided by stone walls, and produce beans, peas, sweet potatoes, “ Russian turnip radish,” barley, a little rice and millet, the last being the staple article of diet. Nuts, oranges, limes and plums are grown. Small but strong ponies are bred for export, and small cattle and pigs for home use. Apart from agriculture, the industries consist in the manufacture of fine bamboo hats and mats, and wooden combs for export and local use. For hshing the islanders use double-decked raft boats, similar to those of southern Formosa. Their lucrative pearl fisheries have been practically monopolized by the Japanese, who use proper diving apparatus. A valuable product is a species of clam, the shell of which furnishes a specially iridescent mother-o'-pearl, which the natives barter with the Japanese for inlaying lacquer. European goods are not imported, but Japanese articles find ready barter. There are no markets, and only a few poor shops.

Chu-sung, the capital and seat of government, a few miles from Port Pelto, has a black lava wall 25 ft. high, with three gates and towers; an imposing audience-hall in Chinese style; and a great bell tower, with a fine bronze bell, sounded to drive off “ evil dragons.” Its population is estimated at 16,000. The governor has a hereditary army for coercive purposes. The uniform is a complete suit of mail, with a helmet, from which leather curtains fall over the shoulders. The weapons are equally antique.

There are no good harbours, and the only anchorage for large vessels is Tai-chung, or Yung-su, at the east end, with 9 to 13 fathoms of water. Pelto has ancient breakwaters for the protection of small boats, erected, as many believe, by the Mongol conqueror, Kublai Khan, who in 1273 built on Quelpart one hundred ships for the invasion of Japan.

QUENSTEDT, FRIEDRICH AUGUST VON (1809–1889), German geologist and palaeontologist, was born at Eisleben in Saxony on the 9th of July 1809. He was educated at Berlin, and after having acted as assistant in the mineralogical museum he was appointed professor of rnineralogy and geognosy in the university of Ttibingen in 1837, a post which he occupied until his death. His earlier work related chiefly to crystallography and mineralogy, on which subjects he published text-books that were widely used. He became distinguished for his researches on palaeontology, and especially for those on the fossils of the Jurassic system. The museum at Tübingen owed its establishment to his exertions. He died at Tübingen on the 21st of December 1889.

His chief publications were: Method der Krystallographie (1840); Das Flözgebirge Württembergs (1843); Petrefactenkunde Deutschlands (7 vols. and atlases, 1846–84); Die Cephalopoden (1846–49); Handbuch der Petrefactenkunde (2 vols., 1852, 3rd ed. 1882–85); Der Jura (2 vols., 1858); Handbuch der Mineralogie (1855, 3rd ed. 1877); Die Ammoniten des Schwäbischen Jura (1883–84). Obituary by W. T. Blanford, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xlvi., 1890.

QUENTAL, ANTHERO DE (1842-1891), Portuguese poet, was born on the island of St Michael, in the Azores, on the 18th of April 1842. He studied at the university of Coimbra, and soon distinguished himself by unusual talent, as well as turbulence and eccentricity. He began to write poetry at an early age, chiefly, though not entirely, devoting himself to the sonnet. After the publication of one volume of verse, he entered with great warmth into the revolt of the young men which dethroned Castilho, the chief living poet of the elder generation, from his place as dictator over modern Portuguese literature. He then travelled, engaged on his return in political and socialistic agitations, and found his way through a series of disappointments to the mild pessimism, a kind of Western Buddhism, which animates his latest poetical productions. His melancholy was increased by a spinal disease, which after several years of retirement from the world, eventually drove him to suicide in his native island, on the 11th of September 1891. Anthero stands at the head of modern Portuguese poetry after Joao de Deus. His principal defect is monotony—his own self is his solitary theme, and he seldom attempts any other form of composition than the Sonnet. On the other hand, few poets who have chiefly devoted themselves to this form have produced so large a proportion of really exquisite work. The comparatively few pieces in which he either forgets his doubts and inward conflicts, or succeeds in giving them an objective form, are among the most beautiful in any literature. The purely introspective sonnets are less attractive, but equally finely wrought, interesting as psychological studies, and impressive from their sincerity. His mental attitude is well described by himself as “ the effect of Germanism on the unprepared mind of a Southerner.” He had learned much, and half-learned more, which he was unable to assimilate, and his mind became a chaos of conflicting ideas, settling down into a condition of gloomy negation, save for the one conviction of the vanity of existence, which ultimately destroyed him. A healthy participation in public affairs might have saved him, but he seemed incapable of entering upon any course that did not lead to delusion and disappointment. The great popularity acquired, notwithstanding, by poetry so metaphysical and egotistic is a testimony to the artistic instinct of the Portuguese.

As a prose writer Quental displayed high talents, though he