destroyed, among the latter was the flagship of Conflans, who escaped to the shore on a spar. Seven of the French ships ran into the little river Vilaine, being compelled to throw their guns overboard to lighten themselves before crossing the bar. Nine escaped to the south. The small number of prizes taken gives no measure of the importance of the victory, which broke the spirit and strength of the French fleet so effectually that it did not appear at sea again during the rest of the war, i.e. until 1763.
See Beaton's Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain, vol. ii. p. 32I et seq.; Burrows's Life of Lord Hawke; Tronde, Batailles navales de la France, vol. i. p. 379 et seq. (D. H.)
QUICHÉ or KICHFS, a tribe of Central American Indians of Mayan stock. They inhabited western Guatemala, where their descendants still survive. They were at the time of the conquest the most powerful of the three Mayan peoples in Guatemala, the other two being the Cakchiquel and the Zutugil. Their chronicles are said to date back to the 8th century. Their sacred book, the Popol Vuh, containing a mythological cosmogony, survives in a 17th-century manuscript written by a Christianized Guatemalan. To this tradition may be due the remarkable similarity of the Quiché creation story to that of the Old Testament. Their capital was Utatlan, near the site of the modern Santa Cruz Quiché, and was skilfully fortified. They had an elaborate system of government and religion. Records were kept in picture-writing. The Quiché were the first Indians met by Pedro de Alvarado in 1524 on his expedition into Guatemala.
See further CENTRAL AMERICA and Mexico; for the Papal Vuh see English edition by L. Spence (1909); see also Nuttall, Ancient American Civilizations (Camb. Mass., 1901), and W. Bollaert in Proc. Roy. Soc. Lit. vii. 1862.
QUICHERAT, JULES ETIENNE JOSEPH (1814-1882), French historian and archaeologist, was of Burgundian origin. His father, a working cabinet-maker, came from Paray le Monial to Paris to support his large family; Quicherat was born there on the 13th of October 1814. He was fifteen years younger than his brother Louis, a great Latin scholar and lexicographer, who survived him. Although very poor, he was admitted to the college of Sainte-Barbe, where he received a thorough classical education. He showed his gratitude to this establishment by writing its history (Histoire de Sainte-Barbe, college, communauté, institution, 3 vols. 1860-1864). At the end of his studies he hesitated for some time before deciding what career he would follow, until Michelet put an end to his indecision by inspiring him with a taste for history. In 1835 Quicherat entered the École des Chartes; he left two years later at the head of the college. Once more inspired by the example of Michelet, who had just written an admirable work on Joan of Arc (q.v.), he published the text of the two trials of Joan, adding much contemporary evidence on her heroism in his Procès de condamnation et de rehabilitation de Jeanne d'Arc (5 vols. 1841-1849), as well as half a volume of Aperçus nouveaux sur l'histoire de Jeanne d'Arc, in which it seems that the last word has been said on important points. From the 15th century he drew other inspirations. He published memoirs of the adventures of a brigand, Rodrigue de Villandrando (1844), which gradually grew into a volume (1877), full of fresh matter. He wrote full biographies of two chroniclers of Louis XI., one very obscure, Jean Castel (in the Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, 1840), the other, Thomas Basin, bishop of Lisieux, who was, on the contrary, a remarkable politician, prelate and chronicler. Quicherat published the works of the latter, most of which were now brought out for the first time (4 vols. 1855-1859). In addition to these he wrote Fragments inédits de Georges Chastellain (1842), Lettres, mémoires et autres documents relatifs a la guerre du bien public en 1465 (1843, in vol. ii. of Mélanges historiques, part of Documents inédits), &c. These works did not wholly occupy his time: in 1847 he inaugurated a course of archaeological lectures at the École des Chartes, and in 1849 was appointed professor of diplomacy at the same college. His teaching had exceptionally good results. Although he was not eloquent and had a nasal voice, his hearers were 10th to miss any of his thoughtful teaching, which was unbiased and well expressed. Of his lectures the public saw only some articles on special subjects which were distributed in a number of reviews. Note should be made of a short treatise on La Formation française des anciens noms de lieu (1867); a memoir De l'ogive et de l'architecture dite ogivale (18 50), where he gives his theory on the use of stone arches important for the history of religious architecture; an article on L'Âge de la cathédrale de Laon (1874), in which he fixed the exact date of the birth of Gothic architecture; Histoire du costume en France (187 5; 2nd ed. 1877), which was first published in the form of anonymous articles in the Magasin pittoresque, and which the author wished to retain the character of a popular work. Following the advice of his friends, he began to write out, towards the end of his life, his lectures on archaeology, but only the introductory chapters, up to the 11th century, were found among his papers. On the other hand, the pupils trained by him circulated his principles throughout France, recognizing him as the founder of national archaeology. In one point he seems to have taken a false step; with a warmth and pertinacity worthy of a better cause he maintained the identity of Caesar's Alesia with Alaise (Doubs), and he died without becoming a convert to the opinion, now universally accepted, that Alise Sainte-Reine (Côte d'or) is the place where Vercingétorix capitulated. But even this error benefited science; some well directed excavations at Alaise brought many Roman remains to light, which were subsequently sent to enrich the museum at Besançon. After 1871, his course of lectures on diplomacy having been given up, Quicherat, still professor of archaeology, was nominated director of the École des Chartes. He filled this post with the same energy which he had shown in the many scientific commissions in which he had taken part. In 1878 he gave up his duties as professor, which then fell to the most conspicuous of his pupils, Robert de Lasteyrie. He died suddenly at Paris on the 8th of April 1882, a short time after having corrected the proofs of Supplement aux témoignages contemporains de Jeanne d'Arc, published in the Revue historique. After his death it was decided to bring out his hitherto unpublished papers (Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire, vol. i., Celtic, Roman and Gallo-Roman antiquities, ed. A. Giry and Aug. Castan, 1885; vol. ii., Archéologie du moyen age, ed. R. de Lasteyrie, 1886); among these are some important fragments of his archaeological lectures, but his Histoire de la laine, with which he was occupied for many years, is missing
Bibliography.—Two of Quicherat's best pupils published excellent obituary notices of him: Robert de Lasteyrie, in Jules Quicherat, sa vie et ses travaux (from Bulletin du Comité des travaux historiques, 1883, n. 1); and Arthur Giry, Jules Quicherat (in the Revue historique, vol. xix.), with a Bibliographie des œuvres de Jules Quicherat (in the Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, vol. xliii. p. 316). (C. B.*)
QUICHUA, a South American Indian tribe and stock, the ruling people of Peru when the Spaniards arrived. The Quichuan stock then included the Quichuas proper and the many vassal tribes of the ancient empire of Peru. To-day it numbers some three millions. The modern Quichuas average a heightof 5 ft. to 5ft. 6in. They are of slender build, but with well proportioned muscular limbs, and are capable of enduring great fatigue. Their complexions are of a fresh olive colour, the skin very smooth and soft, beardless, hair straight and black, the nose aquiline. They are skilful farmers and herdsmen. (See PERU.) .
QUICK, a word which, by origin, and in early and many surviving uses, meant “living, ” “alive/' It is common to Teutonic languages, cf. Ger. keck, lively, Du. kwik, and Dan. kvik; cf. also Dan. kvaeg, cattle. The original root is seen in Skt. jioa; Lat. vious, living, alive; Gr. Bios, life. In its original sense the chief uses are such as “the quick and the dead, ” of the Apostles' Creed, a “ quickset ” hedge, i.e. consisting of slips of living privet, thorn, &c., the “ quick, ” i.e. the tender parts of the flesh under hard skin or particularly under the nail. The phrase “ quick with child” is a conversion of with a quick, i.e. living child. From the sense of having full