Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/769

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752
QUINAULT—QUiNAzoLiNEs

drew upon him and killed him. But if he was eager in his own defence he was no less so in that of others. In 1721 a drunken nobleman reeled on to the stage of the theatre and assaulted the manager, Rich, whose life was saved by Quin's prompt armed interference. This resulted in a riot, and thereafter a guard was stationed in all theatres. In 1732 Quin appeared at Covent Garden, returning to Drury Lane from 1734 to 1741, and in 1742 was again at Covent Garden, where he remained until the close of his career. On the 14th of November 1746 Quin played Horatio and Garrick Lothario to the Calista of Mrs Cibber in Rose's Fair Peniteut. The applause of the audience was so great as to disconcert if not actually to alarm the two actors. Public interest was yet more keenly stimulated in comparing Garrick's and Quin's impersonations of Richard III., the popular verdict being loudly in favour of Garrick. But Quin's Falstaff in King Henry IV. was emphatically preferred to the Hotspur of his rival. In consequence of an attempt made by Garrick in 17 50-51 to draw him away from Covent Garden, Quin was enabled to extort from his manager a salary of £1000 a year, the highest figure then reached in the profession. Quin's last regular appearance was on the 15th of May 1757, as Horatio in the Fair Penilent, though in the following year he twice played Falstafi for the benefit of friends. He had retired to Bath, where he lived a happy life, with late hours and much eating and drinking, until his death on the 21st of January 1766. He was buried in the abbey church at Bath. Some coolness which had arisen between Quin and Garrick before the former's retirement was dissipated on their subsequent meeting at Chatsworth at the duke of Devonshire's, and Quin paid many a visit to Garrick's villa at Hampton in the latter part of his life. The epitaph in verse on his tomb was written by Garrick. Quin's will displayed a generous nature, and among numerous bequests was one of hfty pounds to “ Mr Thomas Gainsborough, limner.”

In the Garrick Club in London are two portraits of the actor ascribed to Hogarth, and a portrait by Gainsborough is in Buckingham Palace. His personality was not gracious. His jokes were coarse; his temper irascible; his love of food, his important airs, and his capacity for deep drinking do not command respect; on the other hand, a few of his jokes were excellent, and there was no rancour in him. on many occasions he showed his willingness to help persons in distress. His character is summarized by Smollett in Humphrey Clin/ser. As an actor his manner was charged with an excess of gravity and deliberation; his pauses were so portentous as in some situations to appear even ludicrous; but he was well fitted for the delivery of Milton's poetry, and for the portrayal of the graver roles in his repertory.

See The Life of Mr. James Quin, Comedian, published in 1766 and reprinted in 1887.


QUINAULT, PHILIPPE (1635-1688), French dramatist and librettist, was born in Paris on the 3rd of June 1635. He was educated by the liberality of Tristan l'Hermite, the author of M ariamne. Quinault's first play was produced at the Hotel de Bourgogne in 1653, when he was only eighteen. The piece succeeded, and Quinault followed it up, but he also read for the bar; and in 1660, when he married a widow with money, he bought himself a place in the Cour des Comptes. Then he tried tragedies (Agrippa, &c.) with more success than desert. He received one of the literary pensions then recently established, and was elected to the Academy in 1670. Up to this time he had written some sixteen or seventeen comedies, tragedies, and tragi-comedies, of which the tragedies were mostly of very small value and the tragi-comedies of little more. But his comedies-especially his first piece Les Rivales (1653), L'Amant indiscreet (1654), which has some likeness to Moliére'sEt0u1di, Le Fanfome amoureux (1659), and La Mere eoquetle (1665), perhaps the best-are much better. But in 1671 he contributed to the singular miscellany of Psyche, in which Corneille and Moliere also had a hand, and which was set to the music of Lulli. Here he showed a remarkable faculty for lyrical drama, and from this time till just before his death he confined himself to composing fibretti for Lulli's work. This was not only very profitable (for he is said to have received four thousand livres for each, which was much more than was usually paid even for tragedy), but it established Quinault's reputation as the master of a new style, -so that even Boileau, who had previously satirized his dramatic work, was converted, less to the opera, which he did not like, than to Quinault's remarkably ingenious and artist-like work in it. His fibretti are among the very few which are readable without the music, and which are yet carefully adapted to it. They certainly do not contain very exalted poetry or very perfect drama. But they are quite free from the ludicrous doggerel which has made the name fibretto a byword, and they have quite enough dramatic merit to carry the reader, much more the spectator, along with them. It is not an exaggeration to say that Quinault, coming at the exact time when opera became fashionable out oi Italy, had very much to do with establishing it as a permanent European genre. His first piece after Psyche was a kind of classical masque. Les Fétes de Z'/lmour et de -Bacchus (1672), Then came Cadmus (1674), Alceste (1674), Thésée (1675), Atys (1676), one of his best pieces, and Isis (1677). All these were classical in subject, and so was Proserpiue (1680), which was superior to any of them. The Triumph of Love (1681) is a mere ballet, but in Persée (1682) and Phaetou (1683) Quinault returned to the classical opera. Then he finally deserted it for romantic subjects, in which he was even more successful. Amadis de Gaule (1684), Roland (1685), and Armide (1686) are his masterpieces, the last being the most famous and the best of all. The very artificiality of the French lyric of the later 17th century, and its resemblance to alexandrines cut into lengths, were aids to Quinault in arranging lyrical dialogue. Lulli died in 1687, and Quinault, his occupation gone, became devout, and began a poem called the “ Destruction of Heresy.” He died on the 26th of November 1688 The best edition of his works is that of 1739'(Paris, 5 vo1s.).


QUINAZOLINES (Phenmiazines or benzopyrimidines), in organic chemistry, hetero cyclic compounds of the structure shown in the inset formul a. They may be regarded as resulting (4) from the fusion of a benzene with a pyrimidine

N,3, nucleus in the 5.6 position. They are isomeric K 1 with the cinnolines, phthalazines and quinoxa/- (2) lines. They may be obtained by the action of alco-N (1) holic ammonia on the acidyl derivatives of orthoaminobenzaldehydes and ortho-aminoketones (A. Bischler, Bef.

/CHO CH: N

1891-Q5)Z C5H4< CGH4 l + 2

NH.CO.R N: CR

and from the corresponding dihydro compounds on oxidation with potassium permanganate. They are stable, tertiary bases, and may be distilled without decomposition; they form addition products with alkyl iodides and double salts with mercuric and platinum chlorides. On reduction with sodium in presence of alcohol they yield dihydro derivatives. Those in which the SCH group adjacent to the benzene nucleus is unsubstituted are oxidized by chromic acid to ketodihydroquinazolines (quinazolones).

Quinazoline (CGHZNS) is obtained by oxidizing its dihydro-derivative with potassium ferricyanide. The dihydro derivatives exist in three different series, since the addition of two atoms of hydrogen in the diazine ring can take place in three different positions, namely, in the 3.4, 1.4 and 1.2 positions, and these different types are distinguished by the symbols A1, A2, A3, denoting that the double linkage is between the first and second, second and third, and third and fourth atoms in the diazine ring. The A1 series, which are obtained by the elimination of the elements of water from the acidyl derivatives of ortho-aminobenzylamines, are rather strong bases which form stable salts and yield the corresponding keto derivatives on oxidation (C. Paal, Bef., 1889-1896). 4-Keto-dihydroquinazoline (/3-quinazolone) is formed by oxidizing the dihydro base with potassium permanganate; by boiling acxdyl-ortho-aminobenzamide with water (A. /Vedclige, Jour. prak. Chem., 1885, (2) 31, p. 124);or by heating anthranilic acid with form amide (S. Niementowski, Bef., 1895, 28, p. 443). It reacts both in the enol and keto forms, yielding both N-ethers and O-ethers, the latter being obtained by the action of sodium alcohol ates on 4-chlorquinazolines. The A2 series is obtained by heating acidyl-orthoaminobenzylamines with zinc chloride, whilst the A3 series, which