built, the fire and police departments were reorganized, and the city's care of the poor was systematized. In 1829-1845 he was president of Harvard College, of which he had been an overseer since 1810, when the board was reorganized; he has been called “the great organizer of the university ”: he gave an elective (or “ voluntary ”) system an elaborate trial; introduced a system of marking (on the scale of 8) on which college rank and honours, formerly rather carelessly assigned, were based; first used courts of law to punish students who destroyed or injured college property; and helped to reform the finances of the university. During his term Dane Hall (for law) was dedicated, Gore Hall was built, and the Astronomical Observatory was equipped. His last years were spent principally on his farm in Quincy, where he died on the 1st of July 1864.
He wrote a Memoir of his father (1825); a History of Harvard University (2 vols., 1840), marred by a tendency to belittle the clerical regime; The Journals of Major Samuel Shaw (1847); The History of the Boston Athenaeum (1851); The Municipal History of the Town and City of Boston (1852); a Memoir of the Life of J. Q. Adams (1858); and Essays on the Sailing of Cattle (1859), only one of his many practical contributions to agriculture. See Edmund Quincy, Life of Josiah Quincy (Boston, 1867).
IOSIAH QUINCY (1802-1882), son of the last-named, was mayor of Boston in 1845-1849, and author of Figures of the Past (1882); his brother EDMUND (1808-1877) was a prominent Abolitionist, and author of the biography of his father and of a romance, Wensley (1854); and his sister ELIZA SUSAN (1798-1884) was her father's secretary and the biographer of her mother. Josiah Quincy (1802-1882) had two SOI1S*JOSIAH PHILLIPS (1829-1910), alawyer, who wrote, besides some verse, The Protection of Majorities (1876) and Double Taxation in Massachusetts (1889); and SAMUEL MILLER (1833-1887), who practised law, wrote on legal subjects, served in the Union army during the Civil War, and was breveted brigadier-general of volunteers in 1865. JOSIAH QUINCY (b. 1859), a son of Iosiah Phillips Quincy, was prominent in the Democratic party in Massachusetts, and was mayor of Boston in 1895-1899.
QUINCY, a city and the county-seat of Adams county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the western part of the state, on the Mississippi river, about 105 m. W. of Springfield. Pop. (1890) 31,494; (1900) 36,252, of whom 4961 were foreign-born-3988 being of German birth-and 2029 were negroes; (1910, census) 36,587. Land area (1906), 5-8 sq. m. Quincy is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Quincy, Omaha & Kansas City, and the Wabash railways, and by lines of river steamers, which find an excellent harbour in Quincy Bay, an arm of the Mississippi. The city is built on the river bluffs, which command an extensive view. In Indian Mounds park, within the city limits and owned by the city, are prehistoric mounds. The Quincy Library, founded in 1837, has been a free public library since 1889. Among the principal public buildings are the Court House and the Federal Government building. The State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home (1887), with grounds covering 222 acres, is in Quincy; one of its fifty-five buildings (Lippincott Memorial Hall) was erected by the veterans of the institution in memory of Charles E. Lippincott, the first superintendent. There is a monument in Quincy in memory of George Rogers Clark, and the homestead (built in 1835) of John Wood, founder of the city, is now owned by the Quincy Historical Society, organized in 1896. Quincy is the seat of St Francis Solanus College (1860) and St Mary's Institute (Roman Catholic); The Chaddock Boys' School (Methodist Episcopal), until 1900 known as Chaddock College; two schools of music; and the Gem City Business College. 'Among the charitable institutions are Blessing Hospital (1875), St Mary's Hospital (1867; in charge of the Sisters of the Poor of St Francis), the Woodland Home for Orphans and Friendless (1853), St Aloysius Orphans' Home (1865), and several homes for the aged and infirm. The city is the seat of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. Quincy is the industrial and commercial centre of a large region. The value of factory products in 1905 was $IO,748,224, an increase of 35-7 per cent. since 1900. Among the manufactures are stoves and furnaces, foundry and machine shop products, carriages and wagons, flour and grist mill products, malt liquors, dairymen's and poulterers' supplies, showcases, men's clothing, agricultural implements, saddlery and harness, and lumber.
In 1822 John Wood (1798-1880), the first white settler, built a log cabin here, and in 1825, Quincy, then having less than ten inhabitants, was made the county-seat of Adams county, both town and county being named through Wood's influence in honour of John Quincy Adams. Wood was lieutenant governor of the state in 1857-1860, and acting-governor in 1860-1861. A bronze statue (dedicated in 1883) in his memory stands in Washington Park. ' There was a general' hospital of the United States Army in Quincy during the Civil War. Quincy was incorporated as a town in 1834, and was chartered as a city in 1839. 3
QUINCY, a city of Norfolk county, Massachusetts, situated on Massachusetts Bay, and separated from Boston by the Neponset river on the N. and from Weymouth by Fore river on the S. Pop. (1890) 16,723; (1900) 23,899, of whom 7662 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 32,642; area, about 16 sq. m. It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, and by an interurban electric line. To a large degree Quincy is a residential suburb of Boston. The birthplaces of John Adams, built in 1681, and of John Quincy Adams, built in 1716, are still standing. The Stone Temple, or First (Unitarian) Congregational Church, is the burial-place of the two Adamses. Quincy was also the home of Charles Francis Adams. John Adams gave to the town his valuable private library, and in 1822 founded here the Adams Academy for boys (now closed). In the home of ]osiah Quincy (1802-1882) in Wollaston Park is the Quincy Mansion School for Girls. Woodward Institute (1894) is an endowed high school for girls. The public school system, the “ Quincy' System, ” was made famous in 187 S-1880 by Col. Francis Wayland Parker (1837-1902), who abolished learning lessons by rote, and introduced Froebelian principles. A public library was opened in 1871, and in 1882 it was housed in the Crane Memorial Hall, designed by H. H. Richardson, and given by the family of Thomas Crane (1803-1875), who had spent his early youth in the town, but had lived in New York City from 1827 until his death. The library contained about 26,000 volumes in 1908. The city has a fine system of parks, among them being Merrymount and Faxon, the latter named in honour of the family of Henry H. Faxon, who in 1882 secured a negative vote by the town to the question whether “licenses be granted for the sale of intoxicating liquors”; subsequently there has been a similar vote each year. The manufactures of Quincy were long unimportant, with the exception of “ Quincy granite/'1 which was first quarried in 182 5, -this being the first “systematic siliceous crystalline rock quarrying” in New England-and of which the output in the form of tombstones and monuments in 1905 was valued at $2,018, IQ8, and in the form of “marble and stone work ” was valued at $364,924. But manufacturing rapidly increased in importance between 1900 and 1905; in this period the value of factory products increased 198.2 %, to $8,982,446, and the capital invested increased 389%, to $Q,220,8']O. Quincy granite, a hornblende, pyroxene, bluish or greyish, without mica, was used for the construction of the Bunker Hill monument at Charlestown (in 1826), and of King's Chapel, Boston; and for interior decorations it has found some use, for example in the Philadelphia city buildings. Engines, and iron and steel ships are built at a shipyards on the Fore river, and tubular rivets and studs, gearing, foundry products, and translucent fabrics are among the city's other products. 1 Since 1877 the Granite Cutters' Journal has been published here by the Granite Cutters' International Association of America. For a description of the granite quarried in the vicinity of Quincy, see T. N . Dale, The Chief Commercial Granites of Mass., New Hampshire and Rhode Island (Washington, 1908), Bulletin 354 of the U.S. Geol. Survey.
2 Here were built various vessels of the U.S. Navy, including the battleship “ North Dakota."