Rabah to return to Bornu. He gave the British no further trouble, but turned his attention to the French. Flmile Gentil had in this same year (1897) reached Lake Chad, via the Congo and Bagirmi, and had installed a French resident with the sultan of Bagirmi. As soon as Gentil had withdrawn, Rabah again fell upon Bagirmi, and forced sultan and resident to flee. In 1899 the French sent an expedition to reconquer the country, but at first they were unsuccessful. In the summer of 1899 Rabah attacked and routed the French advanced post, held by Naval-Lieutenant Bretonnet, and the latter was killed. In October following another battle was fought, in which the French, under Captain Robillot, completely defeated Rabah, who retreated north-east towards Wadai. Gathering a fresh army, he returned to Bagirmi and joined issue with the French a third time. In a battle fought on the 22nd of April 1900 Rabah was slain and his host defeated. The chieftain's head was cut off and taken to the French camp. In this engagement Major Lamy, the French commandant, also lost his life.
The French continued the campaign against Rabah's sons, two of whom were killed. Rabah had left instructions that if his army was finally defeated by the French, his successor should return to Bornu and make friends with the British. Rabah's third son, Fader-Allah, accordingly threw himself entirely upon British protection. He made a favourable impression, and it was contemplated to recognize him as sultan of Bornu. However, in the later part of 1901 Fader-Allah, who had 2500 riflemen, again made aggressive movements against the French. In retaliation, Captain Dangeville pursued him into British territory. A battle was fought at Gujba, Fader-Allah being defeated. He fied mortally wounded, and died the same night, being buried in the bed of a small river, the course of which had been diverted for the purpose.
Connected accounts of Rabah's career are contained in E. Gentil's La Chute de Vampire de Rabah (Paris, 1902) and in M. von Oppenheim's Rabeh und das Tschadseegebiet (Berlin, 1902).
(F. R. C.)
RABAT (Ribdt), a city on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, in 34° 3' N., 6° 46' W., 130 m. S. of Cape Spartel, on the southern side and at the mouth of the Bu Ragrag, which separates it from Salli on the northern bank. It is a commercial town of about 26,000 to 30,000 inhabitants, occupying a rocky plateau and surrounded by massive but dilapidated walls, strengthened by three forts on the seaward side. To the south of the town stands a modern palace, defended by earthworks and Krupp guns. T he conspicuous feature in the view. from the ocean is the Borj el Hasan, an unfinished square-built tower, 145 ft. high, built on an elevation about 65 ft. above the sea to the west of the walled town. At one time the Bu Ragrag afforded a much better harbour than it does now; the road stead is quite unprotected, and there is a dangerous bar at the mouth of the river, which hampers the shipping, and makes the growth of trade slow. The depth of water over the bar varies from 7 to 12 ft. Rabat trades with Fez and the interior of Morocco, with the neighbouring coast towns and Gibraltar, and with Marseilles, Manchester and London, and is the greatest industrial centre in Morocco. Rabat was founded by Yak'ub el Mansur in 1184, but Salli was then already an ancient city, and on the scarped hills to the west of Rabat stand the ruins of Sala, a Roman colony, known as Shella. It contains a mausoleum of the Beni Marin dynasty.
RABAUT, PAUL (1718-1794), French pastor of “ the Church of the Desert ” (see Huguenots), was born at Bédarieux, near Montpellier, on the 29th of January 1718. In 1738 he was admitted as a preacher by the synod of Languedoc, and in 1740 he went to Lausanne to complete his studies in the seminary recently founded there by Antoine Court (q.v.). In 1741 Rabaut was placed at the head of the church of Nimes, and in 1744 he was vice-president of the general synod. During the persecution of 1745-1752 Rabaut himself was obliged to hide. When the marquis of Paulmy d'Argenson was sent to Languedoc to make a military inspection, Rabaut succeeded in interviewing him (1750). For a time the persecution ceased, but it broke out again in 1753, a price being put upon Rabaut's head. Louis Francois de Bourbon, prince de Conti, interested himself in the Protestants in 1755, and in July Rabaut visited him. During the years 1755-1760 periods of persecution and toleration alternated. By the year 1760, however, the efforts of Antoine Court and P. Rabaut had been so successful that French Protestantism was well established and organized. Court de Gébelin, Paul Rabaut, and his son Saint-Etienne now exerted themselves to get it recognized by the law and government. When the people revolted, the minister Turgot in 1775 requested Rabaut to calm them. His success aroused the jealousy of his colleagues, who tried to undo the good work started by Antoine Court. But Rabaut persevered in his efforts to improve legally the position of the Protestants. In 1785, when he was visited by General La Fayette, it was arranged that Rabaut's son, Rabaut Saint-Etienne, should go to Paris on behalf of the Reformed Church. In November 1787 Louis XVI.'s edict of toleration was signed, though it was not registered, until the 2QLh of January 1788. Two years later liberty of conscience was proclaimed by the National Assembly, of which Rabaut Saint-Etienne was chosen vice-president, and it was declared that non-Catholics might be admitted to all positions. After the fall of the Girondists, however, in which Rabaut Saint-Fltienne was involved, Paul Rabaut, who had refused to renounce his title of pastor, was arrested, dragged to the citadel of Nimes, and kept in prison seven weeks (1794). He died at Nimes on the 25th of September 1794, soon after his release.
See J. Pons de Nimes, Notice biographique sur Paul Rabaut (1808); Charles Dardier, Paul Rabaut, ses lettres d Antoine Court (1884) and Paul Rabaut, ses lettres d divers (1891).
RABAUT SAINT-ÉTIENNE, JEAN PAUL (1743-1793), French revolutionist, was born at Nimes, the son of Paul Rabaut (q.v.), the additional surname of Saint-Etienne being assumed from a small property near Nimes. Like his father, he became a pastor, and distinguished himself by his zeal for his co-religionists, working energetically to obtain the recognition of the civil rights which had been granted to them by Louis XVI. in 1788. Having gained a great reputation by his Histoire primitive de la Grece, he was elected deputy to the States General in 1789 by the third estate of the bailliage of Nimes. In the Constituent Assembly he worked on the framing of the constitution, spoke against the establishment of the republic, which he considered ridiculous, and voted for the suspensive veto, as likely to strengthen the position of the crown. In the Convention he sat among the Girondists, opposed the trial of Louis XVI., was a member of the commission of twelve, and was proscribed with his party. He remained in hiding for some time, but was ultimately discovered and guillotined on the 5th of December 1793.
See I. A. Dartique, Rabaut St-Etienne d Z'Asse1nblée Constituante (Paris, 1903); and A. Lods, “ Correspondance de Rabaut St-Etienne " in La Revolution ffangqise (1898), “ L'arrestati0n de Rabaut St Etienne ” in La Revolution française for 1903 (cf . thge same review for 1901), and “ Les débuts de Rabaut St-Etienne aux Etats Généraux et a la Convention " in the Bulletin historique de la Société de Fhistoire du protestantism français (1901), also an Essai sur la vie de Rabaut Saint-Etienne (1893) separately published. An edition of the (Eur/res de Rabaut Saint-Etienne (2 vols., 1826) contains a notice by Collin de Plancy.
RABBA, a town of British West Africa, in the province of Nupe, Northern Nigeria, on the left bank of the Niger, in 9° 6' N., and 200 m. above the coniiuence of the Niger and the Benue. At the time of Richard Lander's visit in 1830 it was a place -of 40,000 inhabitants and one of the most important markets in the country. In 1867 Gerhard Rohlfs found it with only 500 inhabitants. The town has somewhat recovered its position since the establishment of British rule 1n 1902.
RABBAH BAR NAHMANI (c. 270-c. 330), a Babylonian rabbi or amora (q.v.). He was for twenty-two years head of the Academy at Purnbeditha. His great dialectic skill acquired