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- II. Doubles
1890. P. Ashworth and W. C. Hedley.
1891 P. Ashworth and E. L. Metcalfe.
1892 E. M. Butler and M. C. Kemp.
1893 F. H. Browning and H. K. Foster.
1894 H. K. Foster and F. C. Ridgeway.
1895 F. Dames Longworth and F. H. Browning. 1896. H. K. Foster and P. Ashworth.
1897 H. K. Foster and P. Ashworth.
1898. H. K. Foster and W. L. Foster.
1899 H. K. Foster and P. Ashworth.
1900 H. K. Foster and P. Ashworth.
1901. F. Dames Longworth and V. H. Pennell. 1902 E. M. Baerlein and E. H. Miles.
1903. H. K. Foster and B. S. Foster.
1904. E. H. Miles and E. M. Baerlein.
1905 E. H. Miles and E. M. Baerlein.
1906. E. H. Miles and F. Dames Longworth.
1907. W.' L. Foster and B. S. Foster.
1908. F. Dames Longworth and V. H. Pennell. 1909. E. M. Baerlein and P. Ashworth,
1910 B. S. Foster and Hon. C. N. Bruce.
A military championship was inaugurated in 1903 and is played annually at Princes' Club. In 1908, mainly throu h the exertions of Major A. Cooper-Key, a “ Tennis, Racquets and Fives Association " was founded for the purpose of encoura ing these games, safeguarding their interests and providing a legijatlve body whose authority would be recognized by all tennis and racquet players. Racquets in America.-In the United States and in Canada racquets is a popular game, and most of the leading athletic clubs have good courts. The American champions Foulkes, Boakes and George Standing were all beaten by English professionals, but had a great reputation in their own country; and Tom Pettitt, Ellis and Moore are names that stand high in the records of the game. Among American amateurs, Lamontayne did much to encourage racquets in New York in the earl period of its history; and in more recent times Quincy Shaw, de garmendia, R. Fearing, Payne Whitney, Mackay, L. Waterbury and P. D. Haughton have shown themselves racquet players of very high merit, although Mr Eustxe Miles is of opinion that “an English player like H. K. Foster, or Dames Longworth, or Ashworth, would give any American amateur upwards of seven aces.”
Squash racquets is a form of the game which provides admirable practice for the beginner, and has advantages of its own which offer attractions even to those who are proficient players of real racquets. It is played with a hollow indiarubber ball about the size of a fives ball (i.e. nearly twice the size of an ordinary racquet ball) and with a racquet rather shorter in the handle than those used in racquets proper. The court may be of any dimensions, but is always much smaller than a real racquet court; the squash ball, being not nearly so fast as the racquet ball, would not reach the back wall in a 6o ft. court on the first bound unless hit high as well as hard against the front wall. The rules of the game itself are precisely the same as in real racquets. Squash racquets originated at Harrow, where the boys were in the habit of playing in an improvised court in the corner of the schoolyard against the old school building; the windows, buttresses and water-pipe on the face of the wall forming irregularities which developed great skill on the part of the players in taking advantage of the difficulties thus caused. The marked success of Harrow in the Public Schools Championship at racquets, especially during the first twenty years of its institution (see above), has been attributed to the early training and practice gained at squash racquets in the school-yard, and in other courts which came into use as the popularity of this form of the game increased. Towards the end of the 19th century squash racquets became adopted at other schools and at the universities; and as the court is much cheaper to build than that required for real or “ hard ball ” racquets, and the game is cheaper as well as easier to play, many private courts came into existence. On the initiative of Lord Desborough, who had learnt the game at Harrow, several squash courts were provided at the Bath Club, London, where handicap tournaments are annually played. At Lord's cricket ground, when a new pavilion was erected in 1890, squash racquet courts were included in the building. The dimensions of the courts at Lord's, which may be taken as the best model, are as follows: length 42 ft. by 24 ft.; height of back wall 8 ft. 8 in.; height of service-line from floor 8 ft. 9 in.; height of playi line 2 ft. 4 in. The short-line is 23 ft. from the front Wall. The place which squash racquets has come to occupy may be estimated from the fact that Mr. Eustace Miles pronounces it “ an almost indispensable preparation ” for tennis and racquets as those games are played under modern conditions; and the same authority sufficiently describes its merits when he observes that it “ gives, at a small cost of time or money, abundance of hard and brisk and simple yet exciting exercise for all times of life, of the year, and even of the day-if we have good artificial light.” The squash courtsat Lord's and at the Bath Club are lighted by electricity, so that play is not dependent on the condition of the atmosphere, or on the season of the year.
See Tennis, Lawn Tennis, Rackets and Fives in the “ Badminton Library "; Racquets, Tennis and Squash, by Eustace Miles (London, 1902); Sporting and Athletic Register (London, 1908). (R. J. M.)
RADAUTZ, a town in Bukovina, Austria, 35 m. S. by W. ol Czernowitz, by trail. Pop. (1900) 14,343, of -which about 70% are Germans and 2 5% are Rumanians. It was formerly the seat of a Greek bishopric, removed to Czernowitz in 1786, and possesses a cathedral (1402) with the tombs of several Moldavian princes. The Austrian government has here a large stud. To the W. of Radautz are situated the old monasteries of Putna and Suczawica, dating from the 15th century. They still contain many old and valuable ecclesiastical objects of art, although a great part has been removed to the various monasteries in Moldavia.
RADBERTUS PASCHASIUS (d. c. 860), French theologian, was born at or near Soissons towards the close of the 8th century. He became a monk of Corbie, near Amiens in Picardy, in 814, and assumed the cloister name of Paschasius. He soon gained recognition as a learned and successful teacher, and the younger Adalhard, St Anskar the apostle of Sweden, Odo bishop of Beauvais and Warinus abbot of Corvei in Saxony may be mentioned among the -more distinguished of his pupils. Between 842 and 846 he was chosen abbot, but as a disciplinarian he was more energetic than successful, and about 851 he resigned the office. He never took priestly orders. He died and was buried in Corbie.
Radbertus is one of the most important theologians in the history of the church. “ He was perhaps the most learned and able theologian after Alcuin, as well versed in Greek theology as he was familiar with Augustinianism, a compre» hensive genius, who felt the liveliest desire to harmonize theory and practice, and at the same time give due weight to tradition " (Harnack). His great work was the Liber de Corpore el Sanguine Domini (first ed. 831; new ed., with an epistle to Charles the Bald, 844), which was not only the first systematic and thorough treatise on the sacrament of the Eucharist, but is the first clear dogmatic statement of transubstantiation, and as such opened an unending controversy. It was at once attacked by Ratramnus and Hrabanus Maurus, but was so completely in touch with the practice of the church and the spirit of the age, as to win the verdict of Catholic ortbodoxy.
On the Eucharistic controversy see the article on Radbertus by Steitz in Herzog-Hauck's Real-Encyklopadie; Bach, Dogmengeschichte des Mittelalters, i. 156 ff.; Ernst, Die Lehre des h. Paschasius Radbertus 11. d. Eucharistie (1896); Renz, Die Geschichte des Messopferbegrijfs (1901); K. G. Goetz, Die Abendmahlsfrage in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung (1904), a complete survey of the whole problem, beginning with Radbertus. A. Harnack's treatment in his History of Dogma (vol. V., p. 308 H.) is clear and appreciative.
RADCLIFFE, ANN (1764-1823), English novelist, only daughter of William and Ann Ward, was born in London on the 9th of Tuly 1764. She was the author of three famous novels: The Romance of the Forest (1791), The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794) and The Italian (1797). When she was twenty three years old she married William Radcliffe, an Oxford graduate and student of law. He gave up his profession for literature, and afterwards became proprietor and' editor of the English Chronicle. After The Italian she gave up writing for publication, and was reported to have been driven mad