Page:EB1911 - Volume 22.djvu/87

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and Numismatics, and considerable portions have been retained in the present edition, even though later research has been active in his sphere of work; he also wrote for Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, and published several volumes dealing with his special subjects. He was for some time professor of archaeology at University College, London, and also lecturer. at the Royal Academy.

His elder brother, Edward Stanley Poole (1830-1867), who was chief clerk in the science and art department at South Kensington, was an Arabic scholar, whose early death cut short a promising career. His two sons, Stanley Lane-Poole (b. 1854), professor of Arabic in Trinity College, Dublin, and Reginald Lane-Poole (b. 1857), keeper of the archives at Oxford, lecturer in diplomatic, and author 'of various historical works, carried on the family tradition of scholarship.

POOLE, a municipal borough, county in itself, market town and seaport in the eastern parliamentary division of Dorsetshire, England, 113% m. S.W. by W. from Londonby the London & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901), 19,463. It is picturesquely situated on a peninsula between Holes Bay and the shallow irregular inlet of 'Poole Harbour. There are several modern churches, a guildhall, public library and school of art. Poole Harbour, extending inland 6 m., with a general breadth of 4 m., has a very narrow entrance, and is studded with low islands, on the largest of which, Brownsea or Branksea, is a castle, transformed into a residence, erected as a defence of the harbour in Tudor times, and strengthened by Charles I. Potters' clay is worked here. At low water the harbour is entirely emptied except a narrow channel, when there is a depth of 8; ft. There are some valuable oyster beds. There is a considerable general coasting trade, and clay is exported to the Staffordshire potteries. Some shipbuilding is carried on, and there are manufacturers of cordage, netting and sailcloth. The town also possesses potteries, decorative tile works, iron foundries, agricultural implement works and flour-mills. Poole Park, containing 40 acres of land and 62 acres of water, was acquired in 1887 and 1889, and Branksome Park, of 40 acres, in 189 5. The borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 5333 acres.

Although the neighbourhood abounds in British earthworks and barrows, and there are traces of a Roman road leading from Poole to Wimborne, Poole (La Pole) is not mentioned by the early chroniclers or in Domesday Book. The manor, part of that of Canford, belonged in 1086 to Edward of Salisbury, and passed by marriage to William Longespée, earl of Salisbury, thence to Edmund de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, and with his heiress to Thomas, earl of Lancaster, and so to the Crown. Poole is first mentioned in a writ of 1224, addressed to the bailiffs and good men of La Pole, ordering them to retain all ships within their port. Entries in the Patent Rolls show that Poole had considerable trade before William de Longespée, earl of Salisbury, granted the burgesses a charter about 1248 assuring to them all liberties and free customs within his borough., The bailifi was to be chosen by the lord from six men elected by the burgesses, and was to hold pleas for breach of measures and assizes. It is uncertain when the burgesses obtained their town at the fee-farm rent of £8, 13s. 4d. mentioned in, 1312. The mayor, bailiff sand good men are first mentioned in 1311 and were required to provide two ships for service against Robert de Brus. In 1372 the burgesses obtained assize of bread and ale, and right to hold the courts of the lord of the manor, the prepositus being styled his mayor. The burgesses were licensed in 1433 to fortify the town; this was renewed in 1462, when the mayor was given cognisance of the staple. Elizabeth incorporated Poole in 1569 and made it a separate county; Charles II. gave a charter in 1667. The corporation was suspended after a writ of quo warranto in 1686, the town being governed by the commission of the peace until the charters were renewed in 1688. Poole returned two members to parliament in 1362 and 1368, and regularly from 1452 to 1867, when the representation was reduced, ceasing in 1885. It is uncertain when the Thursday market was granted, but the present-fairs on the Feasts of SS Philip and James and All Saints were granted in 1453. Poole, as the headquarters of the Parliamentary forces in Dorset during the Civil War, escaped the siege that crippled so many of its neighbours. When Charles II." visited the town in 1665 a large trade was carried on in stockings, though the prosperity of Poole still depended on its usefulness as a port.

POONA, or PUNA, a city and district of British India, in the Central division of Bombay. The city is at the confluence of the Mutha and Mula rivers, 1850 ft. above sea-level and 119 rn. S.E. from Bombay on the Great Indian Peninsula railway. Municipal area, about 4 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 153,320. It is pleasantly situated amid extensive gardens, with a large number of modern public buildings, and also many temples and palaces dating from the 16th to the 19th century. The palace of the peshwas is a ruin, having been destroyed by fire in 1827. From its healthy situation Poona has been chosen not only as the headquarters of the 6th division of the Southern army, but also as the residence of the governor of Bombay during' the rainy season, from June to September. The native town, along the river bank, is somewhat poorly built. The European quarter, including the cantonment, extends north-west towards. Kirkee. The Waterworks were constructed mainly by the munificence of Sir Iamsetjee jeejeebhoy. Poona was never a great centre of trade or manufacture though still noted for brass-work, jewelry and other articles of luxury. Cotton-mills, paper mills, a brewery (at Dapuri), flour-mills, factories of ice and mineral waters, and dairy farms furnish the chief industries. Educational institutions are numerous. They, include the government Deccan College, with a law class; the aided Fergusson college; the government colleges of science and agriculture; high schools; training schoolsvfor masters and mistresses; medical school; and municipal technical school. The recent history of Poona has been painfully associated with the plague. During 1897, when the city was first attacked, the death-rate rose to 93 per 1000 in Poona city, 71 per 1000 in the cantonment, and Q3 per 1000 in Kirkee.

The District of Poona has an area of 5349 sq. m. Population (1901), 995,330, showing an increase of 18% after the disastrous famine of 1876-1877, but a decrease of 7% in the last decade. Towards the west the country is undulating, and numerous spurs from the Western Ghats enter the district; to the east it opens out into plains. It is watered by many -streams which, rising in the ghats, flow eastwards until they join the. Bhima, a river which intersects the district from north to south. The principal crops are millets, pulses, oil-seeds, wheat, rice, sugarcane, vegetables and fruit (including grapes). The two most important irrigation works in the Deccan are the Mutha canal, with which the Poona Waterworks are connected, and the Nira canal. There are manufactures of cotton, silk and blankets. The district is traversed by the Great Indian Peninsula railway, and also by the Southern Mahratta line, which starts from Poona city towards Satara. It is -liable to drought, from which it suffered severely) in 1866-1867, 1876 1877, and again in 1896-1897.

In the 17th century the district formed part of the Mahommedan kingdom of Ahmadnagar. Sivaji was born within its boundaries at Iunriar in 1627, and he was brought up at Poona town as the headquarters of the hereditary fief of his father. The district thus was the early centre of the Mahratta power; and when Satara became first the capital and, later the prison of the descendants of Sivaji, Poona continued to be the seat of government under their hereditary ministers, with the title of peshwa. Many stirring scenes in Mahratta history were enacted here. Holkar defeated the last peshwa under its walls and his flight to Bassein led to the treaty by which he put himself under British protection. He was reinstated in 1802, but, unable to maintain friendly relations, he attacked the British at Kirkee in 1817, and his kingdom passed from him.

POOP (Lat. puppis, stern), the stern or after-part of a ship; in the 16th and 17th centuries a lofty and castellated deck. The verb “to poop ” is used of a wave breaking over the stern of a vessel.